Thursday, March 21, 2013

Mahapadma Nanda - The first Shudra king of Magadha


Mahapadma Nanda a barber by caste established The Nanda Dynasty or Nanda Empire in the territory of Magadha.Nanda Empire was one of the famous Ancient Indian Dynasties. It ruled in India at the time of 4th and 5th century BC. During the peak of its glory, the Nanda Dynasty had its stretch from Punjab to the west to Bengal to the east, and in the distant south upto the Vindhya Mountain Range.
He conquered the dynasties of Panchalas, Aikshvakus, Haihayas, Kasis, Asmaka, Kalinga, Maithilas, Kuru, and Sursenas and added these provinces to Magadha. Mahapadma Nanda is also refered as Smarat (King with wide territory and acceptance) Ugrasena( Terribly strong) or Mahapadmapati ( Most magnanimous Conqueror).

Mahapadma Nanda Was the first king of the Nanda dynasty. He was  also the first Shudra king of Magadha belonging to barber  sub caste of Hindu Religion classification.   Nanda Dynasty was established after Pradyota dynasty. Since Sisunga earlier a minister to the last Pradyota dynasty king and people made him the king.  Sisunga  belonged to the line of Bimbisara, so this dynesty is also called as Sisunga Dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda  has been described as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas". He  was the son of Mahanandin, a Kshatriya father from the Sisunaga dynasty and a Shudra mother.  Other Sons of Mahanandin from his Khatriya wives opposed the rise of Mahapadma Nanda, on which he eliminated all of them to claim the throne. The Indologist  F. E. Pargiter dated Nanda's coronation to 382 BCE, and R. K. Mookerji dated it to  be 364 BCE.Mahapadma Nanda established the first greatest North Indian empire having its power centre in Maghada. He vanquished the old dynasties of North by, dethroning all kings.The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC.Mahapadma Nanda is recognized as  most powerful  (Chhakervarti samarat ) king of the entire land. The collapse of the old Kshatriya dynasties under the rigorous power politics of Mahapadma Nanda, who is explicitly denigrated as the son of a Shudra, and he extended   support to followers of non-Vedic philosophies. But the Vedis philosophers described the rise of Mahapadma Nanda as a mark of Kali Yuga because of their religious hate and narrow mindlessness. He was the ruler of the Nanda dynasty for all but 12 years of the dynasty's  100 years Rule. He is reported to have enjoyed his life span of 88 years.

Mahapadma Nanda, defeated the Panchalas . Panchalas was an ancient region of northern India, which corresponds to the geographical area around the Ganges River and Yamuna River, the upper Gangetic plain in particular. This would encompass the modern-day states of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh , Kasis, Haihayas(Malwa region includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan), Kalingas (central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Odisha, as well as the Andhra region of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh), Asmakas, Kurus, Maithilas, Surasenas and the Vitihotras; to name a few]. Due to his ruling qualities and military power he expanded his territory south of the Deccan plains too.                                                                                                                                                                         The Nandas are also described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India. The Nanda Kings made the collection of taxes methodical, by regularly appointed officials. They had a strong administrative system. Their treasury was continuously supplemented to match the government expenditure. Nandas had large stock of wealth’s. The Nanda kings also built canals and in land water ways to establish an effective  irrigation system by digging new canals. On this, basis of a typically crop cultivation-oriented agriculture developed. Agriculture infrastructure was developed in a big way. The possibility of an imperial structure based on an essentially agrarian economy began to take firm roots in the Indian mind set.  This encouraged economy to develop on sound footing. This made their subjects prosperous in all fields of life.  They are reported to have developed standered weighing and measuring mechanism. The people enjoyed prosperous life conditions with out any danger from the out side invaders. Even the Great conqueror Alexander the Great (356 –323 BCE), did not dare to cross over present day Beas river to intrude into Nanda kingdom territory when he heard of  the military might stories from the natives.  The King Porus had also put up a brave fight against the Alexander army. But when intruding army heard of even mightier Nanda King’s army  , they refused to go across Beas river. So the bravest barber Chakervarti   Smart  forced the marching Alexander  army  stop from further  march so his loot and massacre of Indian masses was put to stop. Alexander’s dreams of conquering whole of India were dashed to ground by the Nanda smarat Dhana Nanda

The Nanda King inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. To this purpose they built up a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000 war chariots and 3,000 war elephants (at the lowest estimates).[3] According to Plutarch, the Greek biographer the size of the Nanda army was even larger, numbering 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 war chariots, and 6,000 war elephants (294,000 troops ).  Since the  military might of Nandas had spread far and wide so no king including the  intruder Alexander could dare to  invade Nanda territory. There for the Nandas never had the opportunity to see their army up against  even Alexander.  Nandas proved that preparedness for war is preparedness for peace and hormony. Alexander invaded India at the time of Dhana Nanda, and confined his campaign up to the plains of Punjab. Alexander’s forces were, frightened by the prospect of facing a militarily powerful enemy and so mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern day Beas River) refusing to march any further. This was the might of the untouchable kings. But alas their religious peers reduced them to be non fighting persons, so the country was enslaved for centuries. 

The people enjoyed freedom of following the religion of their faith with out any fear. The people followed Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. But the rulers of the Nanda Empire embraced Jainism. Once the Nanda rulers took over the kingdom of Kalinga, they made Pataliputra (Patna Bihar), their capital. Revered Jivasiddhi, the Digambar saint, was adopted as master by Dhana Nanda the last Nanda Samrat. Pataliputra was then known all over the world for being the place of enlightenment of Lord Mahavira and learning . Lord Mahavira propagated Jainism whose message was asceticism, austerity and non-violence. The Nanda dynasty rulers were also known for their appreciation of writing and art. They offered support to a number of academics and researchers. Panini, the eminent linguist, was born during this era.  The Nanda dynasty kings were great builders too. The majority of the stupas of Rajgir and at other major Hindu religious holy places were constructed during last Nanda ruler. 

The following Nanda dynasty rulers came during a short period of 12 years after great Mahapadma Nanda Smarat ,the destroyer of Kshatriyas. They were Panghupati, Pandhuka, Bhutapala, Govishanaka, Rashtrapala, Kaivarta, Dashasidkhaka, Mahendra, and Dhana Nanda (also known as Argames) (? – c. 321 BC).

The Nanda dynasty was over run by the Chandergupta the founder of Maurya Dynasty. The Maurya Dynasty ruler ruled over India between 322 BCA to 185 BCE with Chandergupta as the founder to little after Ashoka the Great. It was Ashoka the Great, who himself converted into Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread to other parts of Asia. During the Mauryas, the Hinduism took the shape that fundamentally taught the religious principles which are followed even to the present day.                                                            

Mahapadma Nanda Smarat was the founder of a huge  Nanda Dynasty empire and was the first non-Kshatriya ruler of northern India during that  time. Following his extensive regime and demise, the kingdom was assumed by Pandhuka. Subsequently, a succession of rulers arrived and ruled over Magadha. Mahapadma Nanda Smarat shall be long remembered as a great just ruler during whose rule his subjects enjoyed the life benefits with out fear or favour. No foreign invader could dare to cross over to the Magadha territory with an evil eye.

References:-1. Ancient India, Text Book (Class XI )NCERT 2002
                      2. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

38 comments:

  1. If he is born to a Kshatriya King doesn't it mean he obviously is a kshatriya too ...!!?? o.O

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  2. Waghmare Sahab, that's not the question being asked. The point is that in the patriarchal system that was prevalent at that time meant that a person embraced his father's caste. Even today, it is the father's caste that one carries. So Nanda dynasty cannot be in fact termed as the first Kshudra dynasty as far as technicality is concerned. Please enlighten us.

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    1. Forget about present system. Any child born out of mixed castes was considered to be born a Shudra. In this respect Bidur in Mahabharata was also treated as a Shudra though born of a Kshatriya father and a slave (shudra) mother. What is going on today is a violation of shastras, that is desirable.

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  3. CASTE = SOCIAL OPPRESION.
    Let the HINDUS live with it.

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  4. Exactly Venu I too was feeling the same. When father is a Kshatriya how does mahapdma nanda become a Shudra ?

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    1. Who made him Kshatriya? Anyone who will write history just to let down the Shudra. So leave this question? Karan is Kunti putra belogs to Shudra? Vayas is Shudra who wrote Mahabharta. Valmik is shudra who wrote Ramayna. So what more you want to know?

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  5. padamananda sons and rest of his faymily mumbers went to south asian and they were calling as a padmanayakas in andhra right now..

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  6. Reference in invited to the page 257-60( Pedigree Of the Lowest Stratum Of Society In Ancient India) of " Harijans In Indian Society" By SRIVASTAVA M.A;Ph.D with forward by Jagjivan Ram former Dy.PM of India.
    KSHATTRI and/or UGRA was a name given to a person who had Shudra Father and Kshatriya mother.
    He was most degraded of mortals that he was not allowed to perform rites in honour to their forefathers.
    I hope the doubts are cleared. I am thankful for taking intrest in my blog.

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  7. In modern odisha in the western part of odisha there is a dynasty known as " Mahananda". May be at the time of falling of nanda empire they may move to this part of odisha. More archeological evidence is required about the nanda dynasty.

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  8. nanda dyansty is true and but some data is missed and dosent matter what is caste just matter person this type of things who is shudra and who is rajput this is not a good thing castism ,plase stop on this

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    1. Indian history written by Brahmin always misuse the history. ...nanda was sudra not Kshatriya.. He fight against brahminism

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    2. Indian history written by Brahmin always misuse the history. ...nanda was sudra not Kshatriya.. He fight against brahminism

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  9. All Nanda Rajavansh's are barber caste persons
    ----------------------------------------------

    Nanda Rajavansh Proofs (Chandragupta Maurya Nandas Son Proofs) :
    నంద రాజ వంశీయుల ఆధారాలు :
    చంద్రగుప్త మౌర్య నంద రాజ కుమారుడు ఆధారాలు :

    1.క్రీ.పూ.4వ శతాబ్దం విశాకదత్తుడు రచించిన “ముద్రరాక్షస” గ్రంధం లో క్లుప్తంగా వివరించారు " చంద్రగుప్త మౌర్యనంద వంశీయుల వారసుడే " అని వివరించినారు.(Visakadattas 4th century BC “Mudrarakshasa” Book)

    2. ఎజెస్ ఆఫ్ ద నందస్ యండ్ మౌర్యస్ - (రచించిన వారు కే.ఎ. నీలకంఠ శాస్త్రి). (Ages Of The Nandas and Mauryas – Written by K.A.Neelakanta Sastri).

    3. ద నందస్ (బార్బర్ రూలర్స్ ఇన్ ఇండియ) - (రచించిన వారు ధనరాజ్ టి.యం). (The Nandas(Barber Rulers In India)- Written by Dhanaraju T.M).

    4. భారతదేశ చరిత్ర డిడి.కోసాంబె - ప్రఖ్యతిగాంచిన బౌద్ధమత రచేయిత డిడి.కోసంబె, ఇతను రాసిన అనేకగ్రంధాలలో కుడా “చంద్రగుప్త మౌర్య నంద వారసుడే “ అని రచించినాడు. (“DD Kosambi” buddhist Writer – India History - DD Kosambi also Wrire his books Chandragupta maurya Nandas Son)

    5. సాక్షి దినపత్రిక లో (తేది: 20-11-2011) ప్రచురించిన ఫ్యామిలీ పెజిలో వచ్చిన ఆర్టికల్ లో కుడా “ చంద్రగుప్తమౌర్య నంద వారసుడే అని వ్రాసినారు “. (Telugu Popular News Paper "Sakshi" published An Airtcle (Date: 20-11-2011) Chandragupta maurya Nandas son)

    6. History Of Ancient india - Radhey Shyam Chaurasia.

    7. A History Of India - Romola Thapar.

    8. "Encyclopaedia of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh" Written By “Om Gupta”.

    9. The Early History of India written by Vincent A. Smith

    10. Indian Heritage and Culture written by Dhirendra singh

    11. A History - written by "John Keay"

    12. Hinduism & Its Military Ethos written by Air Marshal RK Nehra

    13. "India Rediscovered: A New Vision of History and Call of the Age Written By Mahesh Vikramasimha.

    14. A Brief History of India written by Alain Daniélou

    15.Historical Geography of Madhyapradesh from Early Records written by P. K. Bhattacharyya

    16. The Mauryan Polity written by R. Ramachandra Dikshitar.

    17. History of the Tamils from the Earliest Times to 600 A.D written by P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar

    18. Encyclopaedia of Asian History written by R.C. Majumdar, David P. Barrows

    19. Faiths Across Time: 5,000 Years of Religious History written by J Gordon Melton

    20. World history from early times to AD 2000 written by B .V. Rao.

    21. Kingship and Community in Early India written by Charle Drekmeier.

    22. History of India written by N. Jayapalan.

    23. Dharma: Its Early History in Law,Religion and Narrative written by Alf Hiltebeitel.

    24. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture written by John Stewart Bowman.

    25. Encyclopedia Of Bihar Written by Arunima Kumari.

    26. Evolution of educational thought in India Written by Bhanwar Lal Dwivedi.

    27. The Making of Miracles in Indian States: AndhraPradesh Written by Arvind Panagariya, M. Govinda Rao.

    28. History of India, in Nine Volumes: Vol. II - From the Sixth Written by Vincent A. Smith, A. V. Williams Jackson.

    29. Chandragupta Maurya and His Times Written by Radhakumud Mookerji.
    (Dhundiraja, the 18th century A D commentator on the Text of Puranas takes Chandragupta Maurya to be the son of Mura who was one of the wives of king Nanda Chandraguptam Nandasyaiva patanyasya Mura-samjanasya putram Mauryanam prathamam).

    30. Life in North-eastern India in Pre-Mauryan Times written by Madan Mohan Singh.

    31. History of Ancient India Written by Rama Shankar Tripathi.

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  10. I have learnt from various texts and sources that Mahapadma Nanda was the son of a barber and queen of Kshatriya king Mahanandin. Is it true??
    But anyways, I am not a believer of casteism and I fully acknowledge the great works done by the King Mahapadma Nanda for the betterment of the Indian society as a whole.

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  11. Bharat Nayak(Gouda) caste Odisha. we are Magadha caste Nandvanshi we are all Warrior caste..

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  12. I will take anything other than Muslim, who are scourges of earth. The Muslims are demons of entire world

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  13. You may have any views about any religious persons,but it has no relation with the article as Muslim religion has much later origin
    than Nanda Kings.

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  14. Oh my god, caste system is indeed wrong but what did we mordern day hindus do to feel sorry for our ancestors? Dalits have been wronged indeed but that doesn't right to you morons belittle the ancient religion whose offshoot is buddhism itself but mant whiny buddhists won't accept and you seem to be dumb filled with grudge against the whole community, Brahmins did wrong but not all were the same still keep playing the victim card while the real opressed don't spew hatred on the social media or downgrade the people with no proper knowledge of our history, well guess what dalits aren't shudras,many castes now considered as part of general category were shudras once like Reddy's and many castes once upon a time considered high and prestigious are now considered low caste like counder. Do read arthashastra of Chanakya to know the secular attitude, it clearly states caste was occupational, there are so many proofs given which says caste based rigid discrimination as we know now didn't exist in ancient times but you want to accuse the hindus time and again for your condition, more than 40% Indians are below poverty line and opressed and many of them are indeed high caste hindus as well with even lesser chance than you people to rise up because of the lack if reservation but they don't whine, if you love jainism and buddhism then do follow it as you wish but don't for a minute even believe that hindu religion could be wiped off with such article but well you are a moron like I said so good luck with your campaign!

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    1. Siddarth Reddy Ji thanks for continuing debate on the subject:-
      Mahatama Jyotirao Phuley said Shoe mending is profession not a caste,similarly weaving is profession not caste,but in Hinduism by creating castes not only labour was divided but Labourers were divided. why all Chamars those who are no more dealing in shoe/leather business are called chamars but present day Guptas,Sharmas, dealing in leather business are not called chamars or hated for their leather business. Who negated Chankaya's theory,Dalits or Brahmans. If shudras were the same as others why were they hated and ill treated. Were Dalits or Brahmins at fault for this lapse .Hindus gave worst type of treatment to Shudras ( Present day OBC's) Ati Shudras( Present day SC's and ST's ) but they were/are of their religious. This type of hate is unique of Hinduism not in others religions where people professing the same religion are not hated for high or low job profiles. Present day upper Caste Hindus are enjoying the fruits of the assets gathered by deceit by their ancestors but do not own the liabilities created by them. They do not digest reservation benefits to the Dalits( Upper castes are squarely responsible for their miseries) but enjoy the benefits of estates,treasuries, cash,gold,silver,rubies accumulated by their ancestors in temples chests,besides various forms of immovable properties and riches by depriving Dalits of their share. These 15% upper caste Indians enjoy over 85 % of the benefits from the bureaucracy, the judiciary, the political and media power in India. Every time we hear about poor upper caste being deprived of the benefits of the reservation.But this is nothing beyond lip service for the poor upper caste people. Why cannot 10 to 15% reservation be given from the 50% quota reserved for 15% upper caste people to the poor among upper castes.If this is done it will show real concern for them by their upper caste brothers and sisters. The un-level fields created by Upper caste managers of the Indian affairs in Education,Health care,employment, is the worst type of the administrative lapse,where India is showing concern for the rich few leaving majority poor to their fates. Does India belong to a few Rich and influential only? No it belongs to all. It is Governed by the Indian Constitution granting equality to all before Law and not by the Manusmirity and other Hindu religious books.Is it not a shame that 1% of Indians are owning over 56 % of National wealth. Has any body ever tried to analyse category wise the 40% Indians living below the poverty line.Majority of them are Dalits only with a few upper caste people. Buddhism is not offshoot of ancient Hindu religion but it was founded by Buddha the Great striking at the very root of Hinduism "Existence of GOD,God Incarnations and Division of human on Low and High Castes". Had Buddhism been the same as Hinduism then why "Shungs Brahmans" tried to destroy it with their full force and deceit. It is not for others to refine Hinduism but for the Hindus themselves. The caste hate has damaged the Hinduism the most,but still they are clinging to it. By showing and resenting the weaknesses of Hinduism by Hindus may be low caste Hindus is to see reforms in it and if High Caste Hindus view it otherwise it is for them to ponder over again their weaknesses to correct them. The only solution to this tangle of the Hindu religion hate theory is to respect and adopt practically the saying of great religious revolutionary Saints like Guru Nanak,Kabir Saheb,Guru Ravidas,Tuka, Chokhamela ,Namdev, etc. Let Constitutional Means be adopted to create fraternity. If India is safe all shall be safe,but India cannot be safe by caring for a few influential and ignoring just claims of majority.

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    3. There is no such " upper castes " looking down upon " lower castes " .
      In fact the upper castes in south India or even in Maharashtra were the various Sudra castes. The nadars, vellalars, chettiars, mudaliars, kallars, Lingayaths , vokkaligas, Reddis, Balijas, Kapus, Kammas, Marathas ( a conglomerate of 100 odd castes ) were the ruling the roost in the country side. All of them come under Manu's Sudra castes. These Sudra castes themselves are the ruling classes, so how can the Brahmins or Kshatriyas oppress them. Neither is there any evidence of such Brahminical oppression. For at least a thousand years, the ruling classes of south India were Sudras. So where does the question of Brahminical oppression arise. Mr.Hemraj phonsa has lived too much in the writings of the last 100-150 years, whose aim is to take the people away from reality. People of all castes lives a jovial and mutually respectful life , till this rhythm was broken by the 1. Introduction of Macaulean education & the arrival of Marxist literature. 2. The village economy was broken by The British. The artisanal Sudra castes had a major share in the produce of the land. In fact it was the farming community which was at the beck and call of these Sudra castes in the pre British village economy.
      3. New market economy got introduced , that made many of the traditional occupations unprofitable. Deprived of livelihood ( due to the breakup of village economy ) the Brahmins were the first to adopt colonial education & it' attendant lies. Macaulean infected Brahmins were the first to get deluded, to get alienated from Indian traditions, to forget india's history , to believe in outright lies of Macaulay & Marx. It is the modern social sciences educated guilt ridden Brahmin, who spearheaded of all sorts of destructive Marxist / communist ideologies .

      Atrocities are what are perpetrated by Christians during Middle Ages in Europe, in Americas, Africa, Asia ( Portuguese inquisition in which few lakes perished ), Australia and Nuzeeland & Mulsim armies all over the world, on kafirs as well as on themselves. The social and economic inequalities in India , which are being exaggerated and given huge propaganda , are minor and most of them are of recent origin. They are 0.01 percent of what the Christians and Muslims are accustomed to practice.

      Chamars had a very rich standard of living till the British gained victory over most of India. As the techniques of warfare changed, horses, bows, arrows and swords became irrelevant. With it Chamars lost their major employment ( leather works related to warfare ). The famines created by the British , their occupation of even village forests, cattle grazing rights, destroyed the cattle wealth of India. In addition, the British have established large scale slaughter houses. A combination of all these factors led to gradual impoverishment of Chamars, along with the impoverishment of the Brahmins and Sudras. In these tough times, it is the Hindu village community that supported the Chamars. The British, I am sure, didn't pay one tenth of the emoluments paid by an Impoverished
      Hindu village to the Chamars for the same work .

      Coming to the untouchable caste, compare their economic status with that of the natives of Americas & Africa subjugated, slaughtered , enslaved by
      the Christians. Compare it to the status of kafirs in Islamic rule any where in the world. Hindus treated their untouchables hundred times better than other contemporary societies dealt with their Neighbours.

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    4. Hi Rama Krishna, from where did you get Indian untouchables were treated better than America's black and kafsirs?

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    5. Hi Rama Krishna, from where did you get Indian untouchables were treated better than America's black and kafsirs?

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    6. The Laws of Manu are intended for the Satya Yuga; those of Yajnavalkya are for the Treta Yuga; those of Sankha and Likhita are for the Dvapara Yuga; and those of Parasara are for the Kali Yuga. Sruti is direct experience. Great Rishis heard the eternal truths of religion and left a record of them for the benefit of posterity. These records constitute the Vedas. Hence, Sruti is primary authority. Smriti is a recollection of that experience. Hence, it is secondary authority. The Smritis or Dharma Sastras also are books written by sages, but they are not the final authority. If there is anything in a Smriti which contradicts the Sruti, the Smriti is to be rejected

      The 18 smrities available to us are:
      Angirasa smriti
      vyasa smriti,
      apastamba smriti,
      daksha smriti,
      Vishnu smriti,
      yangya valkya smriti,
      likhita smriti,
      samvarta smriti,
      sankha smriti,
      10. brihaspati smriti,
      11. atri smriti,
      12. katyayana smriti,
      13. parasara smriti,
      14. manu smriti,
      15. aushashana smriti,
      16. harita smriti,
      17. Gautama smriti,
      18. yama smriti.



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  15. Apart from his vast empire and great army, Dhana Nanda amassed huge wealth. He was huge mass of gold reserves.

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  16. thank u for providing good information keep writing sir

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  17. Correct your dates. The ruler ruled from 1634 BC to 1554 BC. And then his 8 sons jointly ruled for 20 years. After that chandragupta Maurya who was a son of Kshatriya man and shudra woman, betrayed them with the help of chanakya.

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  18. Correct your dates. The ruler ruled from 1634 BC to 1554 BC. And then his 8 sons jointly ruled for 20 years. After that chandragupta Maurya who was a son of Kshatriya man and shudra woman, betrayed them with the help of chanakya.

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  19. Mr.HemRaj Phonsa, you can not understand what really happened in history, with the politically motivated writings of Christians, British imperialists, Marxists & Muslims.

    Twice-born men who, in theirfolly, wed wives of the low (Sudra) caste, soon degrade their families and their children to the state of Sudras. A Brahmana who takes a Sudra wife to his bed, will (after death) sink into hell;if he begets a child by her, he will lose the rank of a Brahmanna. - somewhere in manu smrithi.

    These are valid for the Real Varnas ( not for mere castes ).
    A Sudra is defined as person whose main pursuit in life is pleasure seeking.
    A vaisya is defined as person whose main pursuit in life is accumulation of wealth or objects.
    A kshatriya is one whose main pursuit in life is controlling senses.
    A Brahmanna is one whose main pursuit in life is knowing the self.

    In this categorization, True Brahmanna will marry a true Brahmanna only.
    Brahmanna marrying a Sudra will be a great mismatch. However, there is no external certification agency for this varna. The Boy and the girl should understand themselves first & then the other.

    There are four varnas within each caste. Though we may call a caste as Brahmin caste, not all persons born in it are Brahmin by Varna. Srimukha satavahana was a Kshatriyas born in a Brahmin lineage. The Andhra satavahanas ruled Magadha for 500 years from 9th century B.C. to 330 B.C. The Xandrames or sandrocottus referred by Greek writers was, Chandragupta of the Gupta dynasty. His son Samudragupta was Called as sandrocyptus.

    Maharishi kanva was a Brahmanna born in kshatrya caste.
    The varna is more of understanding one's aptitude in life.
    True Varna system promotes spiritual progress.

    Pandit Kota Venkatachalam's works on Indian history define the Broad outlines of Indian History. Without his insights, one can not progress an Inch, yes one may become an IAS or IPS with NCERT books. But one can never know the truth .

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  20. To a questing person Dr.Ambedkar has said------- In Hindu literature there are only two things.
    1.Stories of Raja Maharaja
    2.Abuses to we untouchables.
    2.Abuses to we untouchables.

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  21. Mr. Deepak Kamboj ji I am grateful to you for pointing out some short coming in my article.Since the facts I have mentioned have been collected /read from different authors/sources, The details of the reference books I have have consulted/read to write the article I have given with the article it self. I again write them here for your reference. References :-
    1.Savtantantra Sangram Ke Mahabalidani Udham Singh by Dr.Rajpal Singh
    Publishers -Raj Rajlaxmi Prakashan Brahmpuri Delhi-53
    2. www.serchsikhism.com
    3.Wikipedia
    4 . Kamboj Society. com, and 5. Jhooth Na Bol PandeHindi Book by Sardar . Gurnam Singh Mukatsar Punjab. So you quote any written source of what you are saying ,I will have no hesitation to add this too. There is nothing which I know pesonally, but as the material I have written is from the books as refered above. Pl keep writing.
    With regards.

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