Saturday, February 27, 2016

GURU RAVI DASS –A- PREEMINENT MYSTIC SAINT (Guru Ji’s 639th birthday falls on 22nd Feubary,2016 )

So purifying is Guru Ravi Dass, that the dust of his holy feet is worshiped by all.” Said (Guru Nabha Dass)
ে׀Text Box: BY:-Er.H.R.PHONSA

Since in majority cases  not much was written down about the lives  and teaching of the mystic saints, by saints themselves or their educated devotees. Saints never wanted anything in their glorification and there was wide spread illiteracy among their devotees. Many things about their life events were carried orally through ages.  So confusions, variation and contradictions mixed up later about their parenthoods,  places of birth, family details, religion or castes, dates associated with their life facts    including births and deaths. Later writers collected different clues from different sources so forming their own views,  but at times varying with one another. In case of Dalit saints this version had more relevancies. After long discussions and comparison of different research works by different scholars, some facts were churned out to be most acceptable. The largely accepted facts about the life of revered  Jagat Guru Ravi Das are given here. Whereas differences in different writers still persists.
Guru Ravi Dass was born on Magh Purnima (Sunday-Ravi )in Samvat  1471 ( 1414 AD ) to Sh. Santosh Dass & Shrimati Mata Kalsi Devi of Chamar caste at Mandiva Thein ,now called Goverdhan Pura  near Banaras  Some scholars give the names of his parents as Shri Raghu & Shrimati Mata Karma Devi. Guru Ravi Dass lived an exalted `life span of 126 years & left his mortal frame in 1540 AD to join back into the supreme ocean of Bliss or the Creator of Universe.  However, some scholars quote his life span of 151 years. But for want of authentic information such things are bound to happen.
     Guru Ravi Dass was born at a time when the orthodox and superstitious Hindu & Muslim priests had adopted rituals, Exterior body decorations, scarifying animals, visiting different places, bathing in different rivers, recitations from their Holy religious books etc. as sole means of salvation from the circle of births & deaths. The Hindus had closed all their places of worships (temples), schools, entry into Government services or honorable services in private sectors for Shudras. ,Instead Shudras were  assigned most dirtiest duties for the Brahmans , Khatriyas & Vaishayas as per Rules framed by Manu All decent living were ruled out for them. Keeping richness of Guru Ravi Dass’s verses in view, 40 of them were incorporated into Sri Guru Granth Sahib by Guru Arjun Dev ji. In addition it this 150 verses are contained in Dadupanthi and another 79 in Rajabdas Samvergi.
 Guru Ravi Dass,a revolutionary saint, denounced caste system which is based on un-natural laws & upheld Virtue by saying ;
 If a Brahmin is virtue less, Offer him no worship ‘O ‘Ravi Dass,
Worship instead the feet of a Chandal, If he is Found full of virtue.”
Meaning “If thou are born to Brahmin (Superior by birth ) mother , why you have not born through a different route .”

Guru Ravidas Ji Maharaj is said to have meetings with Guru Nanak.Kabir sahib,Ramanand and many other saints.
 Guru Ravidas had initiated  in to Bhagati Marg Pt.Ganga Ram,Raja Peepa,Maharaja Chander Pratap, Bibi Bhanmati,Maharani Jalibai, Maharani Meerabai and many others during his life time.
Guru Ji a Great Democrat:- Guru Ravidass set in motion great revolutionary democratic thinking so advised the rulers to provide equal and decent means of livelihood to all their subjects and he said,
I want kingdoms where every one is well-fed,
And all should live in harmony, only then Ravidass shall feel happy.
 Guru Ravidass gave a call to religiously enslaved un-touchable to cut the chains of their slavery and advised them to struggle to have freedom from Tyrant  ruller.
Pradeen Ka Dheen Kaya, Pra Dheen Bin Dheen, Ravidass Dass Pradheen Ko Sab Hee Samjey Heen      
  Meaning:-The enslaves have no religion and he is religion less person. Every body treats him as weak and low caste person.
On the same subject Shri Guru Ravidass advised untouchable to shed away feeling of being weak and helpless.
 Decrying Enslavement chains :-
 He said:- Pradheen Pap Hai, Jan Liyo Hey Meet  
                           Ravidass Dass Pradheen Ko Koun Kare Hai Preet
Meaning:- Enslavement is curse and no body respects or loves to him sayth Ravidasss.
 Guru ji advocated for self rule  saying
 Ravidas Manush Kar Vasan Kuo,Sukh Kar Hain Doyo Thanv,
 Ek Sukh Savraj Main,Dusra Margat Ganv.
 Meaning : A person can bliss in two places only. One is in self government and the other in cremation ground after death.        
 Guru Ravi Dass preached the rule of Almighty:- Almighty has created everybody equal and there cannot be any difference between persons of different castes. He said,
If the world has arisen, From the same SPIRIT (Flame)
How can any body bring about any distinction? Between high & low, Brahman or cobbler (Chamar).
    He further elaborated by saying,
      Ask not caste “o” Ravi Dass, What is there in clan or caste?
       Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaish, or Shudra, All belong to the same caste.
  He also said “If thou are born to Brahmin (Manu proclaimed Superior by birth) mother, why you have not born through a different  body aperture .”
The true saints like Ravi Dass come to this world to preach true message of God realization, Love & devotion to Lord, they don’t denounce other religions but dogmas & rituals. Guru RaviDass said,
Those who are not dyed internally in love, But merely make an outer display,
They will go to the world of death,  Truly doth Ravi Dass state.
 Guru Ravi Vani:-Keeping  in view spiritual richness of Guru Ravi Dass’s hymns, 40 of them were incorporated into the Holy Granth Sahib by  Shri Guru Arjun Dev ji, the 5th  Sikh Guru the compiler of it.These Hymns fall under the following Ragas – Siri (1), Gauri (5), Asa(6), Gujari(1), Sorath(7), Dhanasari(3), Jaitsari(1), Suhi(3), Bilaval(2), Gaund(2), Ramkali(1), Maru(2), Kedara(1), Bhairau(1), Basant(1), and Malhar(3) in the holy Granth Sahib
Amritbani Guru Ravidass Ji” :- It was formed by the Sant Samaj of Ravidassia qaum after thorough research of Guru Ravidass Bani by universities and announced by the Sant Samaj (Dera Sach Khand Ballan near Jalander City Punjab) to the followers of Guru Ravidass Ji Maharaj on the 633rd anniversary of the birth of Guru Ravidass Ji at Shri Guru Ravidass Janam AsthanMandir, Seer Govardhanpur, Varanasi on 30 January 2011.
Amritvani Guru Ravidass Ji  contains 140 Hymns, 40 pade, painti akhri, bani haftawar, bani pandran tithi, baran maas updesh, dohra, saand bani,anmol vachan (milni de samen), laawaan,suhag ustat,manglachar,  besides 231 saloks along with 40  Hymns  contained in Guru Granth Sahib.
Need of a living Master (Guru);- Since God is formless, so it is not possible for humans to see or catch Him, without which man cannot become perfect.
God becomes accessible only when He takes human  form & come to the level of human in this world . This human form of pure spirit is called Guru by the saints.
 So Guru is God’s incarnation. Sain Bulleh Shah Said “God (Moulla ) hath taken the form of man (Guru)” Guru Arjun Dev Ji Said,
Nanak Says, This is the rule of Ram (God), Nobody shall get salvation, With out Guru (Master)     
   Sat Guru Kabir Said “Worship thou the true worshiper of the Lord.”
  Guru Ravi Dass Said,     God, Guru & Saint,     Are the same in consciousness?
This is the metaphysical essential truth of all scriptures, Make no difference between them,  Even, if, you have   to bear the pain of being cut with a saw.
Guru Ravi Dass preached the rule of Almighty, that He has created everybody equal and there cannot be any
Guru Ravi Dass preach to the world true message of God realization, Love & devotion to Lord, through loving His creations he didn’t denounce other religions but dogmas & rituals. Guru Ravi Dass said,
Those who are not dyed internally in love, But merely make an outer display,
They will go to the world of death, Truly doth Ravi Dass state”.
Sri Guru Ravidas, preached that God realization can only be through devotion to a  true Naam dyed or realized saint and , not through Persons who preach dogmas, animal scarifying, roaming in jungles ,observing austerities, etc. He said those who are not dyed internally in love, but merely make an outer display shall not find peace after death. God becomes accessible only when He takes human form & come to the level of human in this world, as idols are lifeless, the animals & birds cannot communicate with us, the past respectable Saints and Noble persons/ Souls are as far away as God, so a living Saint or Master can only guide us.  This human form of pure spirit is called Guru by the saints. So Guru is God incarnation.  Sat Guru Kabir Said “Worship thou the true worshiper of the Lord .”
 Among guru Ravidas’s disciples were Meerabai, Raja Peepa ,Rana sanga many more. Guru ravidas is said to have Three meetings with Guru Nanak.
Guru Ravidas advised his disciples to lead a clean life, refrain from animal killing for eating or scarifying before gods & Goddesses, never take wine or any other intoxicants. Guru Ravi Dass said,
“Those who eat meat, they in fact cut their own throat,
 For whosoever is meat eater, he will have to go to hell “sayeth Ravi Dass.” He further said,
 “Even ,if wine is made with Holy water of Ganga ,Saints drink it not.” 

While expressing contribution of  Guru Ravidas Ji and Kabir Maharaj in the society upliftment on spiritual spheres  Sain Peepa Ji a deciple of Guru Ravidas sayth
Had there been not  born Kabir and Ravidas in Kalyuga, the spiritual books (Vedas) upper caste peopledomination and non spiritual dealings( Kalyug thoughts) would have buried  deep the  preaching of saints? (Sant Peepa Ji)
Guru Ravi Dass spread the message of love for all, devotion to Lord, universal brotherhood, honest earning for livelihood & to discard all that does not help in God realization. By doing so he became one with Lord. Said, Ravidas. Guru Ravi Dass’s 639th birthday is falling on22nd Feb. 2015 and the same shall be celebrated throughout India besides in many foreign countries with reverence. The best way to remember Guru Ji is to follow his ideals.

Er. H.R.Phonsa              Chartered Engineer(I)
Contact :- zenithrs@
  hrphonsa @                             Mobile:-09419134060

Kabir on cursing of religious falshood preachers ( Hindi)

buŒ gsejkt QkSalk                                 
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  MkŒ ch- vkj- vEcsMdj ¼ts ,UM ds LVsV½ vokMZ 1994

Lkn~xq: dchj lkfgc th dh /kfeZd dqfjfr;ksa dks QVdkj

xq:nso dchj lfgc th ,d vfr Øakfrdkjh lar gq,s gSaA vkith dh :gkfu;r dh [kku gSA vki th dk tUe xjhc ?kjkus esa gksus ds dkj.k vkith us xjhch dh ekj dks djhc ls ns[kk] le>k FkkA vki th ds tEe ds le; u flQZ fgUnw /keZ vfirq eqLfye /keZ Hkh dbZ /kkfeZd dqfjkr;ksa esa Qal pqdk FkkA ijksfgrksa] ikaM+ksa ekSyfo;ksa us lh/ks lkns yksxkas dks dbZ rjg ds deZdkUMksa esa Qalk j[kk FkkA ewfrZ;ksa dh iwtk] ekSyfo;ksa rFkk czkã.kksa dks nku&iqU; nsuk]  efUnjksa] eLftnksa esa iwtk] vpZ.kk] ufn;k]sa ljksojksa esa LUkku djuk] Ik”kq cfy nsuk] orZ j[kuk] tatw /kkju djuk lrh gksuk lqURk djkuk] flj eqUMkuk ;k PkksVh j[kuk vkfn dks eqfä ds lk/kku crk dj] vui<+] xjhc] lh/ksa yksxksa dks dbZ izdkj ds ofgeksa] tknw Vwuksa vkfn esa Qalk j[kk FkkA xq:nso dchj th us vkius ledkyhu xq:vksa] lUrksa vkfn ls fey dj fitjs cUn /keZ ds fo:/k tksjnkj vkokt+ mBkbZ FkhA Å¡p uhp dh dqfjfr;ksa dk tksj nkj fojks/k fd;k A mUgkasus vkiuh }kjk ;g fl) fd;k fd izHkq us dksbZ Å¡p ;k uhp ugha cuk;kA lc /keZ cjkoj gS A lc etgc ekuo d`r gSA izHkq us rks lc bUlku ,d tSls gh iSnk fd, gSA Pkekj tkfr esa vofjr xq: jfonkl th ¼1414&1532 bZ½ th dchj lkfgc ¼1398&1518½ ls yxHkx lksyg o’kZ NksVs Fks vkSj nksuksa iw.kZ LkUrksa us ukenso Nhck¼1270&1350 bZŒ ½ th egkjkt ds pyk, lurer dks viuk;k vkSj bl dk izpkj izlkj fd;k A bu lUrks us /kkfeZd fitjksa dks rksM+us dk iw.kZ iz;kl fd;k rFkk fujk/kkj /kkfeZd izkFkfedrkvksa dks yydkjkA blh le; esa xq: ukud nso¼1469&1539½ th Hkh vofjr gq, vkSj budk mins”k Hkh Økfrdjh fl) gqvk bu lUrksa us vkilh dbZ xks’fB;ka dj lh/ks lkns yksxksa dks fuxZq.k HkfDr dk jkLrk fn[kk;k] ftl esa deZ dkUM dks dksbZ egRo izkIr ugha gSA bu egkiq:’kksa us /kkfeZd fØ;kvksa dks QksdV /keZ dg dj ukdkjkA  bu lUrksa us fuxZq.k izHkq dks  gkSan ls Åij crk;k tks le; lhek ls eqDr gSA fuxZq.k izHkq izkIrh xq: ds vfrfjDr nwljh fdlh okfgjh fØ;k tSls Kku ;ksX;] gB ;ksx] deZ ;ksx] deZ dkU<] /keZ] xzaFk i<+us i<+kus] ;K gou djus ] bUnzh lk/kuk] fjrh fjoktksa] okfgj eq[kh fØ;kvksa vkfn ls ugha izkIr dh tk ldrh  fuxqZ.k izHkq HkkfDr esa iw.kZ xq: ls ;qfdRk izkIr dj xq: }kjk crkbZ xbZ fof/k ls uke fleju dj ds gh izHkq dh HkfDr dh tk ldrh gS QksdV /keZ fdk;Zvksa ls ughaA xq: uked th us ¼ek: egyk½ esa dgk
ik[kaM /kjeq izhfr ugha gj flÅ A xq: “kCn egk jl ik;k A
xq: uke nso th us vklk Jh ukenso th esa dgk
lcq xksfoUn gS] lcq xksfcUn gS ] xksfcUn fou ugha dksbZ ] lqrq ,d ef.k lr lgal tSls vksfr iksfr izHkq lksbZ ¼jgÅ 39½ xq: jfonkl th us ijksfgVksa] iknfj;ksa] ekSyfo;ksa ds tkfr vfHkeku ds udkjrs gq, dgk FkkA
jfonkl fivk fcu txr eag lwuh lst u dksbZA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ftr ns[kw frr fivkdj izxV ekstjk gksbZ]
dchj lkfgc th us [kqy dj izHkq HkfDr esa okfgj eq[kh deZ dkUMksa dh fojks/krk dh A vki Tkh ¼dchj xzaFkofy i` 152 eSa½ QekZrs gSaA
,d fujatu lgy esjkA fgUnw rdZ nqagw ugha usjkAA
jk[kw orZ u ekg jetkukA frlgh fle: tks jgs funkukAA
iwtk d: u uekt xqtk:A ,d fujkdkj ân; ueLdk:Aaa
u gt tkÅ u rhFkZ iwtkA,d iNkfu;k rkS dk nwtkAA
dgs dchj Hkje le Hkkxk A ,d fujatu lwa Eku ykxkAA
dchj lkfgc us tkr ikr dks udkjrs gq, dgk % ¼vkfn xzaFk i` 1349½
vofy vYyk uwj mikb;k] dqnjr ds lHk OkUnsA
,d Ukwj ls lcq txq miftvks dmu Hkys dkSu eUnsA
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yksxk Hkjfe u HkwykbZ HkkbZ
      [kkfyd [kyd] [kyd esa [kkfYd] iwfj jfgvks lc BkbZ A
dchj lkfgc dh dh :gkuh Hkjiw.kZrk dks ns[k dj ikapoh ikr”kk gh Jh xq: vtqZunso ¼1563&1606½ th us xq: xzaFk lkfgc dks fy[krs le; 1604 esa dchj lkfgc dh dh 228 dfork;s rFkk 243 “kyksdks dks bl esa “kfey djus dk egku dk;Z fd;kA
dchj th dk thou lQj %&
le; chrus ds lkFk lkFk yxHkx lc LkURkksa] xq:vksa] ihjkas] Qdhjksa ds thou ls lEcfU/kr fo’k;ksa ds ckjs esa dbZ fHkUurk,sa] Hkze] nUrdFkk,sa QSy tkrh gSaA Ckgqr de ,sls egkiq:’kksa ds thou dky eas gh mu ds fo’k; esa fy[kk x;k gSA bu lR;Hkk’kh :gkfu;r ls ekykeky vkRekvksa ds ckjs esa rc ijnk mBkrk gS tc mu dk vuq;k;h ;k fojks/kh dksbZ izfl) euq’; tSls dksbZ jktk othj ;k ?uk<; iq:’k cu tkrk gSA ,sls dbZ dkjukes bu egkiq:’kksa dh thouh ls tqM+ tkrs gS tks mudh fur thou p;kZ ds va”k gksrs gSaA dHkh dHkh ;g lURk tu vkius ftKkfl;ksa ds fgr esa n;k dj dbZ vnHkqr fØ;k,sa dj nsrs gSaA tks vke vkneh dh lksp ls okfgj gksrh gSA ,sls l~Hkkfod dk;Z lUrksa ds thou ds dbZ jgL;ksa ls inkZ mBk nsrs gSA og rks nqfu;k dh vlyh;r ;k fuFkZrk dks gh le>kus ds oklrs ,slk djrs gSaA ,sls vyksfdd dk;Z iw.kZ LkURk yksxksa ds vkd’k.kZ dsUnz cuus ds fy, ughs djrsA mPp dksfVds Lkar iyVqlkfgo ¼1710&1780 bZŒ½ dgrs gSaA
LkUr u pkgs eqDr dks] ugha inkFkZ pkjA ugha inkFkZ pkj eqä lUru dh psjhA
fj/kh flf) ij Fkwdsa LoxZ dh vkl u gsjh-----------------------¼iyVq lkfgc dh dqUMfy;ka½
dchj lkfgc dh thouh esa Hkh ,slk gh dqN gqvk A vkith ds ekrk firk] tUe LFkyh fookfgr thou] lUrku] Hkze.k LFky ] xq#] f”k’;ksa] e`R;q vkfn rRFkksa esa erHksn vk x, gSa A ;gka ij LoZekU; rRFkksa dk  fooj.k fn;k x;k gSA dchj lkfgc dk tUe 1398 bZŒ esa cukjl ds ikl ygjrkyk ds djhc gqvkA vkidh  ekrk th dk uke uhek rFkk firk Jh uhjk  th Fkk tks tqykgs dk dk;Z djrs Fks  A ekrk firk eqLyeku Fks A dchj lkfgc us vki viuh tkr ds ckjs esa fy[kk gS A
      fgUnw dagw rks eSa gS ugh] eqLyeku Hkh ukgha A
      ikap rr~o dk iqryk] xSch [ksys ekgha A
      dchj lkfgc dh iRuh dk uke ekbZ] yksbZ iq= dk uke dekyk vkSj iq=h  dk dekyh FkkA dchj th tUe ls gh fl) iq#’k Fks fQj Hkh nqfu;koh izkEizk;ksa ds fuekrs gq, vkSj vkius fojksf/kvksa }kjk fuxqjk dgs tkus ij Lokeh jkekUkUn th dks vkiuk xq# cuk;k crk;k tkrk gS A Lokeh jkekuUn th ,d dV~Vj fgUnw czkge.k cknh lUr Fks tks igys ljxq.k izHkq Hkxrh djrs Fks vkSj fdlh “kqnª dh ij NkbZ ls Hkh nwj jgrs FksA ijUrq ckn esa og Hkh fueqZ.k izHkq ¼tks le; lhek ls Åij gS½ dh HkfDr djus yxs ftl esa mudh jguqHkkbZ dchj th djrs Fks A
      os”kd dchj th dks fof/kor <+x ls f”k{kk izkIr djus dk volj u feyk ijUrqq mudh esa dbZ Hkk’kkvksa ds xw< vFkZ okys “kCnksa dk iz;ksx gqvk gS A ,slk yxrk gS muds cksyus ik= ls gh vko”kd Hkk’kk  #i ys ysrh FkhA  lar ihik th ¼1408&1448 bZŒ½ jktk gksrs gq, Hkh pekj xq#  jfonkl th ds f”k’; cus Fks A ihik th dk Hkh ,d in vkfn xzaFk lkfgc th ds iq’B 695 ij vfdaV gS A vki th Jh lar dchj ds ckjs esa QZekrs gS A
      tks dy ¼dy;qx½ ekaHk dchj u gksrs A
      rks ys osn v:  dfy;qx feydj Hkxr jlkrfy ¼udZ½ nsrs AA
“ks[k lknqyk ¼e`R;q 1522½ th us dchj th dks eqgkfot dgdj lEeku fn;kA eqgfot dk vFkZ og ml gdhdV ;k vLyh;r lPp dks dgrs gS tks vklkuh ls le>k ugha tk ldrk  ftl dk bYe /khjs&/khjs rFkk eqf”kdy ls gksrk gS A
      dchj lkfgc lnk fuxqZ.k Hkxrh esa jes jgs vkSj vorkj ckn dks fudkjrs jgs blh fy, vki jke vorkj n”kjFk iq= o d`’.k vorkj nsodh ds iq= dks dksbZ egkurk ugha nsrs vkSj u gh mu dh iwtk djrs Fks A jke “kCn xq# xzaFk lkfgc esa 2533 ckj vk;k orkvk tkrk gS A jke “kCn dchj lkfgc ds 228 in tks dh xq# xzaFk lkfgc esa lq”kksfHkr gSa esa 112 ckj vk;k crkk;k tkrk gS A ¼fyUMk gSl us bu inksa dh fxurh 226 crkbZ gS½
d`’.k okpd “kCn ¼d`’.k 22 ckj] eksgu 60 ckj rFkk eqjkjh 179 ckj Jh xq# xzaFk lkfgc esa vk;k gSa½A vkSj dchj lkfgc ds 228 inksa esa 33 ckj A dchj iap esa jke o d`’.k “kCn 220 ckj rFkk 71 ckj vk, Ckrk,s tkrsa gaSA bl ds bykok dchj ohpd esa Hkh jke “kCn dk iz;ksx 49 ckj vk;k crk;k x;k gSA jke d`’.k “kCnksa dk bruh cM+h la[;k esa dchj ;k nwljs laUrksa dh okf.k;ksa es vkus ls lk/kkj.k yksx ;g le>uk “kq: dj cSBs fd ;g lURk Hkh jke rFkk d`’.k ds iqtkjh FksA ijUrq ,slk ugha gSA bu egkvuqHkoh vkRekvksa dk jke RkFkk d`’.k “kCnksa dk vFkZ og “kfDr gSa tks le; lhek ls Åij gSA tks tUe ejuk esa ugha vkrh  og “kfDr lalkfjd ykylkvksa] Hkkoukvksa ls izHkkfor ugha gksrh A blh lU/kZo esa Jh xq: jfonkl th us dgk FkkA
      jfonkl gekjs jke th n”kjFk djflqr ughaA
      jke gej esa jfe jsks fclc dqaVcgq] ekafgAA
      jke dgrs lc tx Hkwykuk lks ;g jke uk gksbZA
      deZ vdje~ d: uk eSa] dssSslks Hkze Hkwyks js HkkbZA
RkFkk jke lc tx tkusa Hkze Hkwys js HkkbZA
Lo;a xq: ukud th us izekRek dks vkfn txkfn lqfp dgk gSa tks dky dh gn ls Åij gS tUe.k ez.k ds pØ ugha vkrk] Mj jfgr lkjs lalkj dk lapky.k djrk gSA
Nhik tkfr ds Lkar Ukkenso th dgrs gS jktk jke tir dks u rfjm ¼vfn xzaFk 1105½ fQj dgrs gS ikaMs rqejk pUnz lksHkh vkor nsf[k;k FkkAA
jko.k lasrh ¼ds lkFk½ ljoj ¼yM+kbZ½ gksbZAA
?kj dh tksÅ ¼vkSjr½ xaokbZ FkhAA
dchj lkfgc dgrs gS %
      jke¼jke pUnz½ cM+k fd jkefg ¼izHkq½ tkb;k ¼iSnk fd;k½
      vFkkZr D;k rqe ml  ikjczã dks cM+k ekuksxs ftl us jke pUnz dks Hkh iSnk fd;k] ;k jke pUnz dks tks tUe e.kZ ds pØ esa FksA ijeLkar lnxq: dchj th us *dchj xzaFkoyh jekbZuh “kyksd 9* esa dgk gS ml izHkq ls tqM+ks ftl dh Hkxrh vkids lc lq[k nq%[k lEkkIr dj ds vkidks lnSo vukFk gksus ls cpkrk gSA ml ls ugha] ftl us n”kjFk ds ?kj tUe fy;k] u gh ftlus yadk ifr jko.k dk lagkj fd;k ¼Jh jke vorkj dh vkSj ladsr ½ A og izHkq nsodh dks dks[k ls dHkh u tEek vkSj u dHkh ;”kksnk dh xksn esa [ksyk     ¼Jh d`’.k vorkj dh vkSj ladsr½ vki th dgk *dchj ds Lokeh ,sls Bkdqj tkds HkbZ u cki&j * % vFkkZr~ dchj us izekRek tUe ej.k ls Åij gSa A
dchj dk jke lnk ,d jax esa jgrk gSA iDdk gS LkPpk gSaA vki th us dgk Fkk * lkp lksbZ tks fLFkj jgkbZ mitss fouls >wB gksbZ tkbZ*A czkã.kksa }kjk jfpr osnksa] “kkL=ksa ] mifu’knksa] lfe`fr;ksa] iqjk.kksa esa lh/ks lk/ks yksxksa dks Hkze esa Qalkus ds dbZ fof/k fo/kku cuk, x, FksA bu esa lc ls cM+k lqoZxksa ds Hkksx vkSj udksZ dk Hk; iSnk djuk Fkk A lc larksa dh rjg lnxq: dchj th us Hkh iq:’k }kjk jfpr ,slh d`;kvksa dk [k.M.k fd;k A  
loxZ udZ dk [kaMu
            ujd lqjx ,d HkbZ dgkorAA
            dksÅ ujd lqjx cNkcr*
      vFkkZRk~ & LoxZ rFkk udZ lc cgus dh ckrs gSaA dgus dh dgkorsa gSA ;g ykyp rFkk Mjkus ds fy, ?kM+h xbZ gSa A
rFkk% lqjax okl u ckfN, AA dfj, u ujd fuokl*
      vFkkZr~ LoxZ dk ykyp u djks vkSj udZ esas fuokl ls er MjksA
      vki th vkxs dgrs gSa
                        dchj lqjx ujd rs eSa jfgÅ
                        lrxqj dj ijlfkn AA
      vFkkZr lrxqj ds fn, aKku ls >wB dh fnokj fxjxbZ A lc lkQ lkQ fn[kkbZ nsus yxk vkSj esSa ¼dchj½ LoxZ udZ ds >wB ilkjsa ls eqDr gks x;k A
      tc yx eu cSdq.B dh vkl A rc rd ukfg pj.k fuokl AA
      vFkkZr LoZx dk ykyp vkSj udZ dk Mj lPps izHkq dh Hkxrh esa
      fo/ku Mkyrk gS A bls R;kxus es gh ykHk gS A
      fQj QZek;k% cSdq.B uxj tgka lUr oklk A vFkkZr iw.kZlUr gh lnSoh lq[k nkrk gSaA
      blh lEca/k esa xq# jfonkl th dgrs gS A
      dou ujd fd;k lqxZ fopkjk lUru nksÅ jkns ¼jnn~  fd,½ ge fdlh dh dku d<rs vkius xq# izlkn AA

ewrhZ iwtk  dh fojks/krk %& dchj lkfgc  us dgk fd ewrhZ iwtk dk dksbZ ykHk ugha vkith us dgk Fkk %
      ikFkj iwtS gfj feys** eSa iwtÅ¡ igkj ¼igkM+½
      ewjfr ls pdh Hkyh ihl [kk, lalkj
vFkkZr % fuZthr iRFkj rks oksyrk ugha] lqurk ugh( [kkrk ugh ihrk ugh fgyrk  ugha eyeq= ugh  R;kxrk] ns[k ugha ldrk og fdlh dk D;k laokj  ;k fcxkM+ ldrk gS A bl ls iRFkj dh pP h Hkyh  gS tks nkus ihlus ds dke vkrh gS A
vki th fQj dgrs gSa
tks ikFkj ds dgrs nso
rkdh fojFkk  gksos lso ¼lsok½
tks ikFkj dh ikbZ ¼iSj½ ik, ¼iM+s½
fldh ?kky ¼esgur½ vtkbZ ¼Qty½ tk,
vUrj nso euq’;s ¼”kjhj es jgrk nsork u tkus va/kqA
Hkze dk eksfgvk ikoS Qan
Tkks e`r dks PkUnu p<+kosA
Ml ls dgBq dou Qy ikosAA
dchj th us vkxs dgk A
dchj ikgu ¼iRFkj½ dks dk iwft,] ;s tUe u nsbZ tkoA va/kk uj vklkeq[kh ;ksa gh gks, vkc ¼[kqokaj½ vFkkZr tM+ oLrq dh iwtk tM+  ¼fuZtho½ lalkj d eksg iSvk djrh gS A bl rjg ;g euq’; dks vkok  xeu ds pØ ¼;fu 84 yk[k pqfu;ksa ½  esa Qalk dj j[krh gS A
rhFkZ Luku % czkge.kksa us lh lh/ks& lh/ks yksxksa ds fy, rhFkZ vl~uku Hkh ,d Hk; cuk j[kk Fkk vkSj bls Hkh eqfd` dk ,d vfuok;Z lk/ku dg dj yksxks dks ywVrs Fks A bl dk Hkh dchkj lkfgc us tksj nkj [kUMu fd;k A vki th us dgk Fkk A
dkab;ka ekatfl dÅu xquk A tÅ ?kV Hkhrfj gS eyuk A
yÅdh vBlfB  rhjFkZ ukbZ A  dÅjkiuq rÅ¡ u tkbZ AA
                                                          ¼vkfn xzaFk 656½
      vFkkZr “kjhj dks ckj ckj jxM+dj /kksus ls ;k ?kM+s dks ckj ckj vUnj ls /kksus ls D;k ykHk A tSls yksdh ¼rwch tks ,d lkt cukus es dke vkrh gS½ 68 rhFkZ ugk dj Hkh dM+fo dh dM+fo gh jgrh gS A
      Xkq# ukud nso th dk dFku gS A
      dj laxfr rw lkn dh vBlfB rhFkZ ukÅ*
      vFkkZr iw.kZ lUr dh lUxr esa tkus esa 68 rhFkks ds vLuku dk Qy feyrk gS xzaFk lkfgc esa vkrk gS A **vUrj eSy ts rhFkZ ukoS A frl oSdq’B u tkuk** AA
      dchj lkfgc dk dguk Fkk
            lk| laxfr oSdqUBS vkfg ¼vkfn xzFk 1161½
vkneh dk eu dSlh dSlh eu ?kMar ckrsa esa Qalk dj bl dk lR;kukl djrk gS A dchj th dgrs gSa A
      ukou dks rhFkZ ?kus eu cÅjk js
      iwtu dks ogq nso AA
      dgq dchj NwVr ugh eu cÅjk js
      NwVr gj dh lso A ¼vkfn xzaFk 336½
      ikxyeu rhFkksa ds pØ dkVrk gS A iRFkjksa dh-------------
      iwtk djrk gS ml ls mldk NqVdkjk
      ugh gksxk ] ;fn bUlku deZ tky ls
      NwV ldrk gS rks flQZ ,d izHkq
      HkfDr ls NwV ldrk gS A
      dchj lkfgo rhFkZ vLuku dk [k.Mu djrs gq, dgrs gS A
      Tky ds etfu ts  xr gksos A fur fur eSaMd ukofg A
      tSls eSaMd rSls mbZ uj A fQj fQj twfu vkos A
                                              ¼vkfn xzFk 484½
      vFkkZr % rhFkZ vLuku dk D;k ykHk A eSaMd lnk rhFkZ ikuh esa gh jgrk      gS mldh eqfd ;fn ugha gksrh rks bUlku dh dSls gksxh A
fi= iwtk dk [k.Mu% czkgk.kksa dh dekbZ dk ,d cM+k lk/ku yksxksa ls fi= iwtk djkuk gS A fdlh bUlku ds ejus ij] laLdkj ds le; nku] lky Hkj jkst nku nsuk] fQj pkj lkyh vkSj ckn esa gj lky Jk) gS A bl dk dchj lkfgc us tksjnkj  [k.Mu fd;k Fkk A yksx thrs th rks vkius ctqxksZa dh lsok ugh djrs muds ejus ij fi= iwtk ds uke ij nku nsrs gS A ;g nku dk v™k mu ls lkeus gh dkaos] dqÙks [kkrs gS a vkSj iSlas] jLr ] oL= ] orZu vkfn Hkwnso czkge.kksa ds gkFk p<+ tkrs gS vkSj og lc oLrqvksa dks osp dj iSls vkiuh ysu esa j[k ysrs gSa A bl dk D;k ykHk
      dchj th dgrs gS A
      thor fi= u ekuSa dksÅ eq,sa fljk?k djkgh AA
      fi= Hkh ciqj dgq D;k ikofg dÅvk dwdj [kkgh AA ¼vkfn xzaFk 332½                                                          lkfgc
vki th fQj dgrs gS :&
ekVh ds dfj nsoh nsok] ftl vkxs thvks nsgh**
,sls fi= rqekjs dgh vkfg] vkiu dfg;k us ysgh
                  Lkj thvks dkS dkVS fujthvks iwtfg A
                  var dky dÅ Hkkjh A
                  jke uke dh xfr ugh tkuh A
                  Hk; Mwcs lalkjh AA
vFkZr% ekVh ds nsoh nsors cuk fy, tks tho jfgr gksrs gS A mu ds vkxs thor thoksa  dh cfy nsrs gaS A ejs gqvks dks thor thoksa dh oyh ns dj [kq”k djrs gSa A dSls gS ;g fi= tks vius tUes oPpksa ls lh?kws ugha ekaxrs chp esa iaMrksa dks ys vkrs gS A  ,sls djus ls vUr esa Hkjh iM+sxk A dchj th dgrs gS fd ml izHkq #ih jke ds uke tius ds vykok dksbZ nwLjk jkLrk  ugha gS A
ekax dj [kkuk %& nku ysuk czkgk.kksa dh thfodk ,d izeq[k lk/ku jgk gS A blfy, czkge.k d`r /kkfeZd xzaFkksa esa nku dk cgqr xq.k xk;u fd;k x;k gS A nku nsus dks eqfd izkfIr dk ,d lk/ku dgk x;k Fkk A euqLkfefrZ esa nku ysuk czkge.kksa ds fy, fo/kkfur gS ¼1%88½ nku nsus vkSj ysus okys nksuksa LoxZ dks izkIr djrs gS ¼4%235½ bl rjg lh/ks lk/ks yksxksa dks ywVuk lfn;ksa ls pyk vk jgk Fkk A dchj lkfgc] xq# ukud th ] xq: jfonkl th ukenso th vkfn us nku ysus ;k nsus dk iw.kZ fojks/k fd;k gS A
      ftcgk HktS gfj uke fur] gRFk djfg fur dke A
      jfonkl Hk, fugfpar ge] ee~ fpUrk djsaxs jkeAA ¼jfonkl th½
      dchj lfgc th us dgk %&
            ej tkÅa ekaxw ugha] vkius ru ds dkt
            izekFkZ ds dkj.ks eq>s u vksos ykt ¼lk[kh laxzfg i`’B 123½
dchj th us lk/kqvksa rFkk xq#vks dks nku dh ykur ls nwj jgus dks   dgk %
      f”k”k dks ,slk pkfg,] xqj dks ljcl ns A
      xq# dks ,slk pkfg, f”k”k dk dNq us ys AA lk[kh lUxzfg i`’B ¼17½
      dchj th us lk/kq dks nku ls nwj jgus dk lq>ko fn;k vkSj dgk
      lk/kq Hkw[kk Hkko dk /ku dk Hkw[k ukfg
      /ku dk Hkw[kk tks fQjs] A Lks Vks lk/kq ukfg AA
                                          ¼dchj lk[kh laxzfg i`’B 123½

      xq: ukud th us Hkh nku ysus dh eukgh dh
      xq: ihj dgk,] eaxu tk,] rkfd ewy u ykxw ik,
      ?kky [kk, dqN gRFkkSa ns ukud gqDe iNkus ls AA
blfy, bu egku lUrksa us vkius xqtkjs ds fy, gd gyky dh daekbZ ij tksj fn;k A xq: jfonkl th twrs xkaBrs] dchj th diM+k cqursA xq: ukud th us gy pyk;k] O;kikj fd;k vkSj dHkh fdlh ds vkxs gkFk ugha QSyk, A
fl[k yfgj es yxHkx 95 Qhlnh nfyr larksa] egkRekvksa] rFkk turk us lnk vkius gkFk dh dekbZ ij xqtkjk fd;kA ,d egkRek us rks dgk Fk fd ,d le; dk [kkuk fdlh ds ?kj [kkus ls ?kj ds efyd dks 2½ ?kaVs dh HkfDr nsuh iM+rh gS A bRkuh eagxh O;oLrk ls dkSu izgst ugha djsxkA ge us dHkh fdlh pekj dk Hkkxrs gq, ugha ns[kkA
Tkkr ikr dks udkjuk & lc LkaRkksa us tkfr ikrh ds Hksn dks uk ekurs gq,s izHkq HkfDr esa bl dh fuvFkZrk dks mtkxj fd;k gSA iyVq lkfgc us dgk Fkk
IkyVq Åfp tkr dk tfu dksbZ djS vgadkjA
Lkkfgc ds njckj esa dsoy HkfDr I;kjAA
Xkq: xksfoUnk flag th ¼1666&1708½ us tkfr ikr ds udkjrs gq,] lc euq’;ksa dh ,d gh tkr dgk gS A vki th dk dFku gS *ekul dh tkr lEkS ,sdS ifgpku;ksA lUr pjunkl dh ¼1703&1782½ th us Hkh dgk Fkk 
Tkkr [kqnk dh tfu;ks rklc ¼vKkurk ½ dh tks nwjA ¼yhyk lkxj½
xq: jfonkl th us Hkh tksj nkj “kCnksa esa tkrikr dk [k.Mu fd;k gSA vkith dk dFku gS A
jfonkl mitvks lHk bd uwj rsa] czkã.k eqYyk ls[kA
lHk dks djrk ,d gS] lHkdwa ,d gh is[kAA
xq: jfonkl th us tkr ikr dks udkjrs gq, xq.kksa ds vk/kkj dks ekurk nh A vki th us Åaph tkr j[kus okyksa xq.kghu czkã.kksa dhs iwtk dks udkjk vkSj ;g Økafrdkjh “kCn xq.koku “kwnª dh iwtk dh odkyr djrs gq, dgk Fkk
jfonkl czkã.k er iwft.k Tkm gksus xq.k ghuA
iwtfga pj.k paMky ds tm gksos xq.k ijohu AA
                        Xkq: ukud th dk dFku gSsa
esjk mins”k pgwa o.kksa dks lka>kA lkbZ cqYys”kkg ¼1680&1758½ us Hkh dgk Fkk veyk rs gks.k xs fucsM+s rs tkr fdls iqNuh fuvksA
vFkkZr izHkq ds njckj esa euq’; ds deZ ns[ks tk,xas u fd tkfr
dchj Tkh us tkr ikr dk iw.kZ [k.Mu fd;k vkSj flQZ vkSj flQZ ,d izHkq dh iwtk dk fo/kku fn;k
tkr ugha txnhl dh] gfj&tUk fd dgka gksbZA
Tkkr ikr ds dhp esa] Mwc ejks er dksbZAA
vFkkZr ;fn izHkq dh dksbZ tkr ugh arks bUlku dh D;k tkr gks ldrh gSA
vki th fQj djrs gSaa]
,d tksfr ls lHk mriuk] dkS  czkã.k dkS lwn ¼dchj] xzaFkoyh i`’B 82½
vki th dk dFku gS%
ekVh ,d vusd Hkakfr dj lkth lktu gkjSA
Uk dNq iksp ekVh ds HkkaMs] u dNq iksp dqaekjS AA
vFkkZr~ ml izHkq :ih dqegkj us lc euq’; :ih crZu ,d tSlh feV~Vh
i`Foh] ikuh] gok] vXuh] rFkk vdk”k ls cuk, gSA ml ds cuk, euq’;ksa esa Hksn Hkko djuk izHkq ls uQjr djus ds cjkcj gS ml dh dkjhxjh ds udkjuk gSA dchj lkfgc th dk dFku tks xq# xzaFk lkfgc ds i=k 324 esa ntZ ij mls nsf[k, ] ;g rks li’V djrk gS fd tc izHkq us euq’; tho ds tUe ysus ] ejus] [kku iku] ukfM+;ksa es nkSM+rs [kwu] “kjhj dh jpuk ,d tSlh dh gS tks fQj tkfr vk/kkfjr Hksn Hkko dh xqatkb”k dgka jg tkrh gS A vk th dk “kCn gS
      tks rqe czkã.k tk;k] rÅ vku ckV dksgw u vk;k A fQj dgk%
      rqe dr czkã.k ge dr lwn A ge dr ygw rqe dr nw/k A fQj dgk xeZ ckl esa dqy ugh tkrh AA czã foanw ls lHk mrikVh AA
;g okf.k;k tkr vfeekuh czkgk.kksa dks  oaxkj  ugh rks vkSj D;k gS A
xq:  xzaFk lkfgc ds i=k 349 ij **tk.kgq tksfr uk iwNgq tkrh
ukjh tkfr dh fojks/krk dk [k.M+u %
      euqd`Rk euqLe`frZ dh ekus rks ukfj dks vkius rkSj ij dqN ugha djuk pkfg, pkgs og ml dk vkiuk ?kj gh D;ksa u gks ¼5 & 147½ L=h dks vkius firk] ifr ;k iq= dh lÙkk esa jguk pkfg, bls vktknh ugha nsuh pkfg,A    ¼5 & 148½ ,d vkSjr dks lnk vkius ifr dh lsok esa thou xqtkjrk pkfg, pkgs og fdruk Hkh cqjk D;ksa u gks A jke pfjrekul ¼1575 bZŒ ½ esa xksLokeh rqylh nkl ¼1532 & 1623 bZŒ ½ th us ukjh dks tUe ls gh vifo= fy[k fn;k rFkk “kqHk xfr ikus ds fy, mls flQZ vkids ifr dh lsok esa yhu jguk pkfg, A                                         ¼v”’; dk.M lks0 5 ¼d½A
dchj lkfgc th dk dFku
      dÅu dks iqj[k dkSÅu dks ukjh**
      bvk rÙk ysgq ljhj fopkjh ¼xq: xzaFk lkfgc i=kk 331½
vFkZkr Hkys vkneh rÙk ;fu vlyh;r dk fopkj djA ukjh iq:’k ds “kjhj D;k ,d tSls ugha gSa A
      dchj th us dgk
      br vmjr ¼ukjh½ enZ lkts Hk, lHk :Ik rqekjs AA
      Jh xq: ukud th Hkh dchj th ds dFku dks lPp ekurs gq, dg jgs gS A
      iqj[k efg ukfj ukfj efg iqj[kk cw>gw czã Kkuh**
                                          ¼xq-x-l-iUuk 879½
vFkZr ukjh esa iq:’k vkSj iq:’k es ukjh lekbZ gS ( ;g Kkuh yksx tkurs gSa A
xq: ukud th us D;k [kwclwjr dgk gSA
lks D;ks eank vkf[k, ftr tefg jktkuq ¼xq-xza- lk iuzk 473½
HkfDr ygj ds nwLjs lUrksa us Hkh ukjh dks Åpk ntkZ fn;k gS A ;fn lUrksa dh ckr yksx ekurs rks vkt lfr] Hkzw.k gR;k] ngst ij gR;k,a] ukjh dks ihVuk dHkh dk cUn gqvk gksrk A
ckfgjeq[kh iwtk dks udkjuk
¼v½   iwtk LFky% lc lUrksa us ckfgj eq[kh iwtk ds vkMcjksa dks Qtwy dgk gS % lUrksa us rks izHkq nkjk cuk, “kjkhj esa gh izHkq dks <w<usa dks dgk gS A
      Xkq: jfonkl th dFku gS
      r:d ¼eqLyeku½ elhfr vYyg <w¡<b] nsgjs ¼eafnj ½ fgUnw jke xqlkbZ A
      jfonkl <w¡<;k jke jghe dwa] tag elhr nsgjk ukagh AA
      dchj lkfgo us dgk Fkk
            dadj iRFkj tksM+ dj] eLftn ybZ pquk;s A
            rk p<+ eqYyk ckax ns] cgjk Hk;k [kqnk; AA
            rqjd elhrs fgUnw nsgjs] vki vkidks /kk,s A           
            vy[k iqj[k ?kV Hkhrjs] rkdks y[kk u tk, AA
            egkRek pj.knkl th dk dFku gS A
            tks tks nsgh Bkdqj nqvkjs] fru esa vki fojkts A
            nsoy esa nsor gS izdV ] vkaNh fof?k lw jkts AA
            vFkZr% euq’; dk “kjhj gh lPpk Bkdqj )kjk gS A bl esa lc               nsrkvksa ls Å¡ps b’V nso] og izekRek fuokl djrk gS A
      lkbZ cqYys “kkg ¼1680 & 1758 bZ½ th dk QekZu gS A
      cqYy;k /kjelkyk /kM+okbZ ¼Mkdw½ jSgUns] Bkdqj }kjs Bx] fop elhrka dqLrhjs ¼>wBs½  vkf”kd jg.k vyx AA
      rqYklh lkfgc gkFk jl okys ¼1763 & 1843 bZŒ½ th us dgk gS
      udyh eafnj elftnks esa tk,s ln vQlksl gS A
      dqnjrh elftn dk lkfdu nq%[k mBkus ds fy, AA
flj eqUMkuk %& yEcs cky j[kuk ;k lj eqUMkuk o pksVh j[kuk ckfgj eq[kh lk/ku gSa ftu dk Hkkfä ls dqN ysuk nsuk ugha A ijUrq /keZ ds Bsdsnkj czkgk.kksa us bls Hkh jLe cuk;k gS vkSj yksxksa ls iSls ,asBusa dk lk/ku A dchj  lkfgc th dgrs gS fd flj dk dksbZ nks’k ugh bls eqUMkus  ls dqN gkfly gksus okyk ugha vly dke rks eu eqUMkus ¼dkcw djuk½ ls cusxk
      dchj eu eqafM;k] ugha dsl eqaMk, dkab AA
      tks dqN fd;k lks eu fd;k ewaMk eqaMq vtkbZ ¼Qtwy½ AA
      vki tks fQj le>krs gSa
            dchj ek, ¼eka½ ewMm frl xqj dh tk rs Hkze u tk, AA
      vFkkZr % NqBs xq: tks vkius f”k’;ksa dks Hkzze ls NqVdkjk ugha fnyk ldrs
mu dh eka dk flj eqaMkuk pkfg,A flj eqUMkus dh fuZFkRrk dks udkjrs gq, fQj dgk fd ckj ckj HksM+ dks eqUMk;k tkrk gS ij og cSdqUB dh vf/kdkjh ugha cu  tkrh A
      eqMa eqaMk, gfj feys] lHk dksbZ ysfg eqUMk,s A
      ckj ckj ds ewaMrs HksM+ cSdqUB u tk, AA
3     /keZ “kkL=ksa dk i<+uk%& lc egkiq:iksa us fo|k v/;au dks izkFkfedrk  nh gS rFk bls lc ds fy, vfuok;Z dgk A /keZ xzaFkksa ds i<+us dh  eukgh ugha dh D;ksafd bu /keZ xzFkksa esa egkvuqHkoh vkRekvksZ ds vuqHko dk upksM+ ntZ gS A ;g eqfd dh jkg n”kkZrs gSa ijUrq Loa; eas eqfØ nkrk ughA ijUrq /keZ ds Bsdsnkjks us /keZ xzFkksZa dks Ikjksfgrksa] iknfj;ksa }kjk i<+s tkus  dks eqfDrh izkfIr dk lk/ku dg Mkyk vkSj lh/ks lkns yksxksa dks Bxus dk lk/ku cuk fy, A LkUrksa us /keZ xzFkksa ds ikBu dks eqfd` izkfIr ds lk/ku gksus dks udkjk gS A lUrksa us izse ekxZ dks gh  egkurk nh gS A 
dchj lfgc dk dFku gS A
D;k if<+, D;k xqfu,s ** D;k csn iqjkuk lqfu,s **
Ik<s+ xqus D;k gksbZ ** tm lgt u fefy;k lksbZ ¼xq: xzaFk lkfgc i`’B 525 ½
fQj vki th us dgk Fkk
      csn Hkjksls ikaMs Mwfc ejfg     ¼xq-x-lk-iUuk 970½
      vkidh dk ,d vksj dFku ns[ks%
csn iqjku i<+s dk D;k xq.k
[kj pUnu tl HkkjkA
jku uke xfr ugh tkuh ] dSls mujfl Ikkjk ¼dchj xzFkkoyh lk[kh laxzg 1103½
fcuk fopkjs osn iqj.kksa ds i<+uk rks x/ks ij pUnu dk yknuk gS A ;fn jke
jke dk fleju ugha fd;k rks Lkalkj :ih Hkolkxj ls ikj dSls mrjksxs A
dchj th us dgk Fkk *iksFkh if<+ if<+ tx eqvk] iafMr Hkvk u dks;A v<+kbZ v{kj isze ds i<+s lks iafM+r gks, gqvk u dks;A vki th us fQj Qjek;k vtkes/k] xkses/k ;K] v”o es/k] ujes/k] dgfga dchj v/keZ dks] /keZ crkos OksnA
      xq: ukud th us Hkh d;k [kwc dgk gS A
      if<+,s tsrs cjl cjl if<+js tsrs ekl A
      if<+,s tsrs vkjtk if<+,s tSrs lkl
      ukud ys[ks bfd xfy gksj >[kuk >kf[k jHk[kuk Hkkf[k AA
¼xq: xzaFk i`’B 65½A
      ¼u½ ekuo jfpr fØ;kvksa dks udkjuk% eqfd izkfi ds fy, A taxy Hkze.k] bUnzh lka/kuka ] uxu jguk ] flj eqUMkuk ;k pksVh j[kuk
lqUr djuk vkfn dks lHk Hkxrksa ] ihjksa Qdhjsa] xq:vksa us udkjk gS
dchj bu fd;kvksa dks udkjrs gq, dgrs gS %
      uxu fQjr tks ikbZ,s tksxqAA
      cu dk e`x eqfDr lHkq gksxq AA
      EkwaM eqUMk, tks flf/k ikbZ AA ¼flf/k & tUe eju ds pØ ds eqfؽ
      eqfDr HksM u xbZ vk dkbZ AA
      fcanw jkf[k tks rfj, HkkbZ
      [kqljS D;ksa u izeefr ibZ ¼vkfn xzaFk 324 i=k½ ¼[kqLjkS & fgtM+k½
;fn uxu fQjus ls ;ksx feyrk rks e`x tks lnk uax gh jgrk D;ksa ije xfr dks ugh izkIr gksrk A flj eqUMku ls ;fn eqfd feys rks HksM+ gj lky esa nks  ckj ewMh tkrh gS dks flf) feyuh pkfg, A ;fg l`tu djrk dk fo/kku jksd dj eqfØ feyrh rks fgozM+ks dks gh feyuh pkfg, A
¼l½   dksbZ LFkku Hkh vifo= ugha %& ijksfgrksa )kjk QSyk, Hkzeksa esa ,d ;g  Hkh Fk fd vUr le; ;fn dk”kh esa “kjhj R;kxk tk, rks euq’; lh/kk LoxZ tkrk gS A  vkSj exgj vkeuh unh ds ikl og LFkku tgka egkRek c`) us viuk “kjhj  R;kxk Fkk ftls gkMUck Hkh  dgk x;k gS esa ejus ls udZ gh feyrk gSA ¼exgj cukjl ls 175 ehy rFkk xksj[kiqj ls 13 eh okLrh fty esa okD;k gS½A
dchj lkfgc dk dFku gS A eugq dBksj ejS ckukjfl ujdq u ckafp;k tkbZA gfj dk lar ejs gkMUcS rka lxyh  lSu rjkbZ AA
                                          ¼vkfn xzaFk lfgc 484 ½
vFkkZr dBksj eu euq’; ;fn cukjl esa Hkh ejs rks udZ gh tk,xk ;fu tUe dj.k ds pØls ugh NwV ldrk A ijUrq ;fn izHkq dk I;kjk lUr exgj esa Hkh “kkjhj R;kxrk gS rks vkiuh lkjh laxr dks rkj ysrk gSA
vFkkZr dchj th us lkjh vk;q f”koiq=h dkalh esa gh ri fd;k vkSj ekSr ds le; exgj vk x;k gw¡ D;ksfd ge us dkalh vkSj exgj dks ,d fopkj fd;k gSA vki th us ,d nwljs “kCn esa dgk 
vCk dgq jke dou xr eksjh AA rthys cukjl efr HkbZ Fkksjh AA
lxy tUe f”koiqjh xaok;k AA ejrh ckj exgj mB vk;k AA
cgqr cjl ri fd;k dklh AA
ejus Hk;k exgfj dh oklh AA
dkalh exgj lHk fopkjh ¼vk- xz- l 326½
ekyk rFk fryd yxkus dk [k.Mu &
dchj th us uhys] ihys] yky] gjs] xs:,s diM+s iguus rFkk “kjhj ij fryd dk Nkik yxokuk] dbZ izdkj dh ekyk,sa iguuk] Hksl /kkj.k djus dks udkjs gq, dgk & ekyk] fryd igfj euekuk yksdu jke f[kyksuk tkuk*
ekyk rks dj esa fQjs ftogk fQjs eq[k ekfg
euqvk rs] ngfnl Hkjesa ;g rk flej.k ukfgaA
lkjka”k %& lnxq: dchj th ,d mPp dksfV ds lUr] fuMZj lekt lq/kkjd] fuZHkhd dfo] LR;Hkk’kh bUlku] lPph ckr dks [kjh [kjh dgus okys xjhc nksLr Fks A og okfgjeq[kh Qtwy dh /kkfeZd fØ;kvksa ds dêj fojks/kh Fks ijUrq gj ckr rjdiwZo d le>krs Fks A dchj ¼”kCnkFkZ izHkq½ th us vkiuh dks vkius f”k”kksa rd igqpkus okLrs nwj nwj rd ;k=k, dh A vki th] ;wih ]fogkj] mM+hlk e/; izns”k] jktLFkku] iatkc] egjk’nz] xqtjkr vkfn eas x,A dchj th us vkius ledkyhu LkUrksa ] lekt lq/kkfjdks ds lkFk feydj ,d LorU= lekt dh uhao j[kh A vki th us Jh xq: jfonkl th ds lkFk feydj etgch dgj iaFkh lekt esa ekuoh lekt dk uhoa iRFkj j[kk A blls Hkkjr es yksdrU= lekt o jkT; dh uhoa Hkh iDdh dhA vkith us /kkfeZd fiatjs oUn lekt dks ,d LorU= jkg fn[kk dj ekuork dh Hkjiwj lsok dh A izHkq vkSj bUlku ds chp Bsdsnkjh dk fu;e rksM+kA Lo;a vkius gkFkksa dh dekbZ ij xqtkjk fd;k vkSj vkSjksa dks ,slk djus dh lYkkg gh A vki lUrksa us izHkq Hkxrh dk ,d ek= lh/kk lk/kk ekxZ uke dh dekbZ vkSj lPps xq: ls fn{kk izkIr djuk crk;kA ckfgj eq[kh fØ;kvksa dh f[kYyh mMkbZ ekyk fryd Ikfguus dh fuvZFkrk dks mtkxj fd;kA dchj lkfgc tks us dgk fd iw.kZ xq: gh djrk iq:[k dh Hksth gqbZ gLrh gS tks lc dqN djrh gS A
      uk dqN fd;k u dfj ldk ] u djus ;ksx “kjhj A
tks dqN fd;k lkfgc fd;k] rk rs HkbZ;k dchj A ¼dchj lk[kh laxzfg 103½ vkidh dh lkjh fQykLQh bl NksVs ls Økafrdkjh “kCn esa iw.kZ mtkxj gS%& lk/kks ns[kks tx ckSjkuk A
lkafp dgksa rks ekju ?kkoS] >+wBs tx ifr;kuk A
fgUnw dgrs gSa jke gekjk] eqLyeku jgekuk A
vkil esa nksÅ yM+ejkr gSa ] eje dksbZ ugh  tkuk AA
cgqr feyS eq>s useh /kehZ] izkrs djsa vLukuk A
vkRe NksM ik[kkus iwtSa] frudk FkksFk Kkuk AA
vklu ekfj fM< Hkj cSBsa] eu esa cgqr xqekuk A
ihrj ikFkj iwtu ykxS] rhFkZ czr Hkqykuk AA
ekyk ifgj Vksih ifgj Nki fryd vuqeku A
lk[kh lcnS xkor HkwyS] vkRe [kcj u tkrkA
?kj ?kj ea= tks nsr fQjr gSa] ekbZ;k] ds vfHkekukA
x:ck lkfgr f”kf”k lHk cwMSa] vURkdky ifNrkukA
cgqr rd ns[ks ihj vkSfy;k] iM+Sa fdrkc dqjkukA
djSa] eqjhn dcj Okyyko] mUgaw [kqnk u tkukAA
fgUnw dh n;k esgj rqjdu dh nksuks ?kV ls Hkkxh
og djSa ftogk os >Vdk ekjs vkx nksÅ ?kj ykxhA
;k fof/k galr pyr gSa gedksa]  vki dgk,a fl;kuk
dgSa dchj lquks HkkbZlk/kkss] bu esa dkSu fnokuk     ¼dchj  “kCn oyh Hkx 44½
dchj lkfgc fdlh /keZ fo”ks’k ds fojks/kh ugh Fks ijUrq /ekZU/k dZqfjfr;ksa ds fojk/kh Fks A vki us lkjs lalkj dks lh/kk lk/kk izHkq izkfr dk ekxZ ork;k A ijUrq ;g lc dgus lquus dh ckVasa u gks dj Loa; fufr oU/k rjhds ls djus dh ckrsa gS A dchj th ds dgus vuqlkj izHkq izkfIr dk exZ mldh cukbZ nqfu;k ls izse djuk gS] vkius xq# dk dgk eku dj uke fleju dh ;qfä dks viukuk gS A
lU?koZ xzFak %
1-  xq: jfonkl fgUnh ] vaxzth RSSS Beas
2-  LkUr pjunkl RSSS Beas
3-  lUr dchj iatkch RSSS Beas
4-  Kabir the weaver of God’s name RSSS Beas
5-    dgs jfonkl pekjk Penguin Books xqjuke flag eqLrlj
6-    >wB u cksys js iakMs Penguin Books xqjuke flag eqLrlj
7-  The saints by Karina Schomer
                    WH Mc Leod ML BS (1987)
8       jkepfj= ekul  xhrk izsl xksj[kiqj
9      The law of Manu Penguin Books ( 1991)
Translated by Wendy Doniger with Brain K. Smith
                                            gsejkt QkSalk