Thursday, March 21, 2013

Mahapadma Nanda - The first Shudra king of Magadha

Mahapadma Nanda a barber by caste established The Nanda Dynasty or Nanda Empire in the territory of Magadha.Nanda Empire was one of the famous Ancient Indian Dynasties. It ruled in India at the time of 4th and 5th century BC. During the peak of its glory, the Nanda Dynasty had its stretch from Punjab to the west to Bengal to the east, and in the distant south upto the Vindhya Mountain Range.
He conquered the dynasties of Panchalas, Aikshvakus, Haihayas, Kasis, Asmaka, Kalinga, Maithilas, Kuru, and Sursenas and added these provinces to Magadha. Mahapadma Nanda is also refered as Smarat (King with wide territory and acceptance) Ugrasena( Terribly strong) or Mahapadmapati ( Most magnanimous Conqueror).

Mahapadma Nanda Was the first king of the Nanda dynasty. He was  also the first Shudra king of Magadha belonging to barber  sub caste of Hindu Religion classification.   Nanda Dynasty was established after Pradyota dynasty. Since Sisunga earlier a minister to the last Pradyota dynasty king and people made him the king.  Sisunga  belonged to the line of Bimbisara, so this dynesty is also called as Sisunga Dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda  has been described as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas". He  was the son of Mahanandin, a Kshatriya father from the Sisunaga dynasty and a Shudra mother.  Other Sons of Mahanandin from his Khatriya wives opposed the rise of Mahapadma Nanda, on which he eliminated all of them to claim the throne. The Indologist  F. E. Pargiter dated Nanda's coronation to 382 BCE, and R. K. Mookerji dated it to  be 364 BCE.Mahapadma Nanda established the first greatest North Indian empire having its power centre in Maghada. He vanquished the old dynasties of North by, dethroning all kings.The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC.Mahapadma Nanda is recognized as  most powerful  (Chhakervarti samarat ) king of the entire land. The collapse of the old Kshatriya dynasties under the rigorous power politics of Mahapadma Nanda, who is explicitly denigrated as the son of a Shudra, and he extended   support to followers of non-Vedic philosophies. But the Vedis philosophers described the rise of Mahapadma Nanda as a mark of Kali Yuga because of their religious hate and narrow mindlessness. He was the ruler of the Nanda dynasty for all but 12 years of the dynasty's  100 years Rule. He is reported to have enjoyed his life span of 88 years.

Mahapadma Nanda, defeated the Panchalas . Panchalas was an ancient region of northern India, which corresponds to the geographical area around the Ganges River and Yamuna River, the upper Gangetic plain in particular. This would encompass the modern-day states of Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh , Kasis, Haihayas(Malwa region includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan), Kalingas (central-eastern India, which comprised most of the modern state of Odisha, as well as the Andhra region of the bordering state of Andhra Pradesh), Asmakas, Kurus, Maithilas, Surasenas and the Vitihotras; to name a few]. Due to his ruling qualities and military power he expanded his territory south of the Deccan plains too.                                                                                                                                                                         The Nandas are also described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India. The Nanda Kings made the collection of taxes methodical, by regularly appointed officials. They had a strong administrative system. Their treasury was continuously supplemented to match the government expenditure. Nandas had large stock of wealth’s. The Nanda kings also built canals and in land water ways to establish an effective  irrigation system by digging new canals. On this, basis of a typically crop cultivation-oriented agriculture developed. Agriculture infrastructure was developed in a big way. The possibility of an imperial structure based on an essentially agrarian economy began to take firm roots in the Indian mind set.  This encouraged economy to develop on sound footing. This made their subjects prosperous in all fields of life.  They are reported to have developed standered weighing and measuring mechanism. The people enjoyed prosperous life conditions with out any danger from the out side invaders. Even the Great conqueror Alexander the Great (356 –323 BCE), did not dare to cross over present day Beas river to intrude into Nanda kingdom territory when he heard of  the military might stories from the natives.  The King Porus had also put up a brave fight against the Alexander army. But when intruding army heard of even mightier Nanda King’s army  , they refused to go across Beas river. So the bravest barber Chakervarti   Smart  forced the marching Alexander  army  stop from further  march so his loot and massacre of Indian masses was put to stop. Alexander’s dreams of conquering whole of India were dashed to ground by the Nanda smarat Dhana Nanda

The Nanda King inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. To this purpose they built up a vast army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000 war chariots and 3,000 war elephants (at the lowest estimates).[3] According to Plutarch, the Greek biographer the size of the Nanda army was even larger, numbering 200,000 infantry, 80,000 cavalry, 8,000 war chariots, and 6,000 war elephants (294,000 troops ).  Since the  military might of Nandas had spread far and wide so no king including the  intruder Alexander could dare to  invade Nanda territory. There for the Nandas never had the opportunity to see their army up against  even Alexander.  Nandas proved that preparedness for war is preparedness for peace and hormony. Alexander invaded India at the time of Dhana Nanda, and confined his campaign up to the plains of Punjab. Alexander’s forces were, frightened by the prospect of facing a militarily powerful enemy and so mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern day Beas River) refusing to march any further. This was the might of the untouchable kings. But alas their religious peers reduced them to be non fighting persons, so the country was enslaved for centuries. 

The people enjoyed freedom of following the religion of their faith with out any fear. The people followed Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism. But the rulers of the Nanda Empire embraced Jainism. Once the Nanda rulers took over the kingdom of Kalinga, they made Pataliputra (Patna Bihar), their capital. Revered Jivasiddhi, the Digambar saint, was adopted as master by Dhana Nanda the last Nanda Samrat. Pataliputra was then known all over the world for being the place of enlightenment of Lord Mahavira and learning . Lord Mahavira propagated Jainism whose message was asceticism, austerity and non-violence. The Nanda dynasty rulers were also known for their appreciation of writing and art. They offered support to a number of academics and researchers. Panini, the eminent linguist, was born during this era.  The Nanda dynasty kings were great builders too. The majority of the stupas of Rajgir and at other major Hindu religious holy places were constructed during last Nanda ruler. 

The following Nanda dynasty rulers came during a short period of 12 years after great Mahapadma Nanda Smarat ,the destroyer of Kshatriyas. They were Panghupati, Pandhuka, Bhutapala, Govishanaka, Rashtrapala, Kaivarta, Dashasidkhaka, Mahendra, and Dhana Nanda (also known as Argames) (? – c. 321 BC).

The Nanda dynasty was over run by the Chandergupta the founder of Maurya Dynasty. The Maurya Dynasty ruler ruled over India between 322 BCA to 185 BCE with Chandergupta as the founder to little after Ashoka the Great. It was Ashoka the Great, who himself converted into Buddhism, and it is in his reign that Buddhism spread to other parts of Asia. During the Mauryas, the Hinduism took the shape that fundamentally taught the religious principles which are followed even to the present day.                                                            

Mahapadma Nanda Smarat was the founder of a huge  Nanda Dynasty empire and was the first non-Kshatriya ruler of northern India during that  time. Following his extensive regime and demise, the kingdom was assumed by Pandhuka. Subsequently, a succession of rulers arrived and ruled over Magadha. Mahapadma Nanda Smarat shall be long remembered as a great just ruler during whose rule his subjects enjoyed the life benefits with out fear or favour. No foreign invader could dare to cross over to the Magadha territory with an evil eye.

References:-1. Ancient India, Text Book (Class XI )NCERT 2002
                      2. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Minorities in India

The establishment in 1992  of the National Commission for Minorities  and its continued existence till then is a fact contrary to the proclamations by  the worth writer. This commission was established under UN Declaration of 18th December 1992. Article 29 of the Indian Constitution gives directions and protection to such acts of the Union Government. Besides the NCM the National Commission for Scheduled Castes, Backward Classes and National Commission for Education Institutions are the facts which no body can negate and prove that the problems of the Minorities warrant express solutions for National Unity.
 The circumstances and exigencies for continuing such commissions still exist in our country. To say that all is well with the minorities is a propaganda campaign by a few of  those who have enjoyed the full cake  of progress at government expenses for centuries and now to  share it  with others is becoming heavy for them . A small number of high dignitaries from the minorities as counted by the writer should be eye opener as from a population of over 85% of the Indian minorities their presence can still be counted on fingers.

Dr Ambedkar’s Democratic Constitutuition of India is based on ideals of Democracy, socialism,  and equality striving for establishment of fraternity. Democracy as defined by the Father of Indian Statue is a way of associated living. Where as Manusmriti laws are discriminatory based on caste, creed, sex, colour and family status? Manu devised the formula claiming it having Divine sanction. He made the provision of 100% reservation of education, education related services, warrior services, agriculture, trade and administrative services for Brahmins, Khatriyas and Vaishyas. He also reserved 100% service jobs to Untouchables with blocking education, marshal services and trade or owning any property for them. But all religious ceremonies were made compulsory for them too. They were slaves living on the mercy of other three castes but doing all service class jobs. This arrangement kept India  slave for centuries .The invaders used the services of the three upper caste people to suppress the minorities.

The share of minorities can be judged from the facts and statistic. Out of 14Prime Ministers since 1947only 2 from minorities.  From 14 Presidents of India minorities had only 5, and  from 12 Vice President with personalities only 4 from minorities and only  4 Home ministers   from minorities out of 20.

The data given by Prof.(Dr) Ramnath former Vice Chancellor of Chander Sheikher Azad Agriculture and Technical University Lucknow( U.P) in his  Hindi book( Youita, Meri Jutti 2009) Gotam Book Centre Delhi is not only interesting but eye opening too.
 Break up of  Upper Castes15% Population( Brahmins3.5%; Khatriyas 55.5% and Vaishaya 6%).Their share in services( Politics41%plus 15% plus 10%= Total 66%) services(64%plus10%plus 10%= Total84%) ;Trade (10% plus20%plus60%= Total 90%) Land ownership (5%plus80%plus9%=Total 94%) Priesthoods ( 100% plus zero plus zero respectively.)
Also a fortnightly News Paper The Himayati Delhi (4-2-2013) has given the following data about Brahmin % in services in (1990) Union Ministers(60%) ;Secretaries, Add. Secretaries and Joint secretaries (62%); Chief Secretaries (54%);SC Judges(51%); High Court Judges in 1985(50.3%);Governors(50%) Secy. to Governors (54%) Higher Officers in Union Govt(56%)  but in states(52%);IAS (60%) with MP’s Rajay Sabha(36%)
In the union budget2013-14 total planned exp.(  allotted) Rs5,55,322 Crores with share  of S/C and S/T 22.5% of Rs107896.3 but allotment made is onlyRs66159 having discrepancy or shortfall as Rs58788.45 Crores. Where as Shri P.G. Bannerji in his book “  A Hand Book of the Fighting Races of India” and Sir Gorge Makmen Col Commandant of Royal Artillery in his book”  Marshal Races of India” have written that Brahmins and Vaishes are non fighting races so they are unfit for Army and Police forces. But now the conditions are contrary to it. For all failures in India Minorities are counted as first culprits which is far from truth.

The minorities have contributed to the welfare of India more than any body else. The Sino-Indian War of 1962 with total humiliation and defeat of India was managed fully by Upper castes managers. But Bangladesh War 1971 was won when PM Mrs. Indra Gandhi ( Brahmin lady married to a  Parse), Babu Jagjivan Ram Defense Minister a Chamar and Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw all from Minorities. Ramayana, Mahabharata and the Constitution of India are written by Dalits.

Let the race for merit be on the level ground between persons equipped with similar social, economic and educational standards. Bravo to those Dalits who are qualifying competitive examinations while studying in  Govt. schools with out roofs, adequate staff strength, water & toilet facilities, where  others in the race  are with Doon, Dalhousi, Massouri, Jaipur etc.situated English Medium schools with ultra  modern facilities.

Swami Vivekananda   while writing to one of his friends wrote, “  Human society is in turn governed by four castes—the priests, the soldiers, the traders, and labourers, each state has its  glories as well as defects”

“When priest (the Brahmins) rules, there is a tremendous exclusiveness on hereditary grounds—none but they have the right to impart knowledge. Its glory is that at this period is laid the foundation of the science”

The military (Kshtriya) rule is tyrannical and cruel, but they are not exclusive and during that period art and social culture attains height” The commercial (Vaishya) rule comes next. It is awful in its silent crushing and bloodsucking power. Its advantage is, as the trader himself goes everywhere, he is good Disseminator of ideas collected during the two previous states. They are still less exclusive than the military, but culture begins to decay.” “Last will come labourer (Shudra) rule. Its advantages will be distribution of physical comforts, its disadvantages (perhaps) lowering of culture. There will be great distribution of education ...”

“The first three have had their day. Now is the time for the last—they must have it. I am a socialist not because it is a perfect system, but half a loaf is better than no bread. The other systems have been tried and found wanting. Let this one be tried. A distribution of pain and pleasure is better, than always the same persons having pains and pleasure”

For the National Unity let every body contribute to his/ her ability & get as per his/ her needs. Let us not produce Doctors, Engineers, scientists, Educationists, who are not prepared to respect the Rule of the country, serve the poor and rural India. Let every doctor or engineer fill up a bond to serve his country in the rural area for at least 10 years before going abroad to  serve or settle their . This theft of going abroad soon after getting qualifications is casting dear to India. Who these majority Qualified persons are which are draining our national resources by going abroad in search of greener postures. Definitely majority is from upper castes.

Ignoring advice of Lord Krishna by Koravs to accede the due share of Pandavas resulted in Mahabharata. I fear ignoring the advice of Indian Parliament (Enactment of 93rd Constitution Amendment Of India) on Rights of Minorities may not result in triggering troubles for the country.. The welfare measures for 85% Indians are going to strengthen India not to weaken it. Even Manu the Hindu Law giver says “ What ever law is agreed upon by an assembly of ten people or more, or even three people or more----------the law should not be disputed 12 ( 110 )”.

Let us avoid the old saying “No matter how big the lie: repeat it often enough and the masses will regard it as a truth”. Let us change our old habits and share happiness and sorrows together as Indians and not as majority and minority. In India Minorities and majority are equal share holders, need to be provided equal opportunities. Disparities in Education, employments, trade and commerce, social and religious fields is dangerous, let us strive to remove them  unitedly before they cause us harm.

Friday, March 8, 2013

SAVITRI BAI PHULE - Mother of Women Education In India

                                 MADAM   SAVITRI BAI PHULE               
                             Mother of Women Education In India
                           (Saluting her On the Eve of International Women Day 2013)
The first women known in the Indian history which lived and died for the social upliftment of down trodden. Her name was Savitribai  who was born on 3rd of January 1831 in Naya Ganj , Tehsil Khandala ,District Satara of Maharashtra. Her father’s name was Khado Ji Nevse Patil . At the time of her birth, no body could realize that the small ray of light which had descended on the earth in the form of Savitribai shall become a torch bearer for many, who were suppressed, illiterate, ill fed , ill clothed and a lightening for suppressors and oppressors inflicting tyranny in the name of caste and sex, on millions
         At the tender age of 9 years in 1840, she was married to a great social revolutionary Jyotirao Phule, who was then 13 years old. The union of two small lights later emerged as a big Light House for millions of their fellow countrymen and pulled them out of their ignorance, illiteracy and ill treatment meted out to them by upper caste Hindus. They jointly fought for   the down trodden people of India to live with dignity keeping spine erect. Jyotirao Phule, later affectionately  called  Mahatma Jyotirao Phule proclaimed that illiteracy the ill of all ills causes lack of intellect which in turn causes lack of moral which results in stagnation, promoting   further  loss of riches  and fortune which caused fall of Shudras. So ban of education to Shudras in Brahminical literature caused their all round degradation, so he gave preference to impart education to Shudras for their over all upliftment.
            The Education to Savitribhai was imparted at home by her husband, who had passed his Secondary Education Examination in 1847 from Scottish Mission High School Poona and  had decided not to accept any job under the government.  On reading Paine’s famous book “The Rights of Man” revolutionized the young mind of Jyotirao Phule and he in turn influenced the tender mind of Savitribhai, who also took oath to help her husband for Social Revolution even at the cost of her life and comforts.
            They jointly opened the very first Girl’s School in 1848 against the vicious campaign launched by orthodox upper caste Hindus for such an act of the Phule couple, as education to girls was coded as unlawful in the laws of orthodox Hindus, although they claimed to possess the most knowledgeable books called “VEDAS” but practically treating Shudras & women worse than animals. No upper caste Hindu teacher came forward to teach in this newly opened Girl’s School in which untouchables girls , besides Hindu Girl’s were admitted. Therefore, Savitribai was appointed as Headmistress of this school on I st January 1848 by Jyotirao Phule. This school was run from the house of a Brahmin in Budhwara Peth, with majority of Brahmin girl students. The orthodox Brahmins raised a great hue & cry against carrying on women education including those of Shudra girls, which stood banned by the Hindu scripture. As soon as Savitribai came out from her house to go to school, people would throw on her cow dung and mud spoiling here dress, which she washed at the school and at her residence. But ill treatment meted out to her by upper caste Hindus did not deter her from her strong convictions and she carried on with the noble cause for the social change. She, instead , opened another school on 15th May 1848 in untouchable’s colony and it was run by her widowed sister –in-law (husband  ‘s sister) Smt. Suganabai. On this again the reactionaries, raised objections and threatened Govinda Rao (Jyotirao ’s father) with dire consequences, if, he failed to dissociate himself from the activities of his son & daughter-in-law.So he asked the couple to leave his home as both of them refused to give up their missionary  endeavor. Both shifted to a Muslim Mian  Usman Sheikh’s house. Smt. Fatima Sister of Mian Sheikh known as first Muslim women teacher of 18th century, started educating Dalit children in this school opened by a Dalit couple. This was an extremely difficult task during those days of Brahmin domination in government and social circles, but Savitribai did it by dint of her courage, determination, intelligence and her commitment to the cause of Dalit upliftment through spread of Education the only road to their empowerment.
             Mahatma Jyotirao Phule blamed the British Government for spending profusely a large portion of the state revenue on the education of the higher castes, which resulted in monopoly of all higher offices under the Government by the Brahmins. The dedicated couple wanted to break this monopoly so as to prepare the down trodden masses for struggle of having equal rights as human beings in their own motherland. Jyotirao Phule for the first time , made strong demand in memorandum submitted to Hunter Commission in 1882  for free & compulsory education to all. This plea was accepted on the instance of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and incorporated in the Constitution of Free India in 1950.  
            Widow re-marriage was banned then and the child marriages were very common among the Hindus including Brahmins. Many Hindu widows resorted to Sati (burning of the bride with the dead body of their husbands) in full public view.  Many women got windowed in their young age and not all of them could live in a manner in which orthodox people expected them to live. Some of the helpless widows resorted to abortion or left their illegitimate children to their fate by leaving them on the streets. Out of pity for them Jyotirao Phule established on orphanage, possibly first such Institution founded and funded by a Hindu. The Phule couple gave protection to pregnant widows and assured them that this orphanage would take care of their children and Savitribai Phule Shouldered the responsibility of managing the orphanage. It was in  this orphanage where a Brahmin widow named Kashi Bai gave birth to a boy in 1873 and the Phule couple adopted new born as their son and heir giving him name as
 Yashuwant, who was given education to become a qualified doctor. During 1876-77 famine she feed and cared about 200 children with the help of her doctor son free of cost. She was a great source of strength to her husband.
            Savitribai was not only an educationist but a great philanthropist, social revolutionary, writer and poet. Perhaps she was the first Indian woman revolutionary who worked against all odds for the emancipation of week and downtrodden women & children. Her poetry book first published in 1854 was titled as “KABYE PHULE” In one of her poems she makes out that the British succeeded in establising their rule in India due to denial of Educational opportunities by the Aryans to the original inhabitants of India. During various invasions the 85% of the population were made mute spectators when their  motherland was occupied forcibly by   the foreign invaders, for which nobody else but Brahmins and caste system  were responsible. When she was told by her brother to follow the path shown by Bhats (Brahmins) she rebuked him by telling that she was following the just path being followed by her husband and she could not be blind follower of Brahmins like her brother. She also tauntingly said to him, “Go and love the cow and the goat and offer milk to snakes on Nagpanchmi,, even then the Brahmins shall turn you out of Puja Sathal branding you as untouchables. This shows her strong conviction and  will power, when actually she was very poised lady having her heart filled with love for all.
            After the death of her husband in November 1890, she successfully managed for seven years the affairs of “SATYA SHODAK-SAMAJ” established by her husband to look after the needs of unfortunate children.

            During the spread of Cholera in Maharashtra in 1897 she opened a number of helping centers for all sufferers in rural and urban areas. She used to carry patients personally to the clinic of her son Yashuwant, who cured hundreds of them free of cost.
             While carrying personally a cholera ridden Mahar boy to the clinic of her son and to get him admitted there, she got infected from the Mahar boy and she died of cholera on the 10th of March 1897.
            We salute the iron lady who struck hard  to break the shackles of religious progeny, caste and dynasty to establish social order of Universal Brotherhood. She was first Indian women leader, who worked for the upliftment & dignity of women & children and was a staunch opponent of orthodox laws including Untouchability. She was mother to helpless orphans, a teacher to illiterates and solace to ill and suffering masses. She deserved to be honored as “Mother of Women Education in India”
            She is even now a source of inspiration for establishing a rule based on equality, justice and fraternity. Let us draw inspiration from her life& works and re-dedicate ourselves for the service of down trodden and Dalits besides those sections of society who are deprived of equal opportunities of life.
 Can be contacted on or
  1. The Nagmay Sanskriti Ujjain (MP) Dated 8-7-1997.
  2. Slavery By Mahatma Jotirao Phule (Vol I) Translated by Prof.P.G. Patil                     Education Deptt.Govt of Maharastra Bombay 1991
  3. Jotibha Phule (Hindi) By Durga Prasad Shukal NCERT April 1991
  4. Dr Ambedkar & His Mission By Danajay Keer
  5. Shoshit Samaj Ke Krantikari Pravertak ( Hindi) by C.S. Bhandari Publishars

Wednesday, February 20, 2013

22 Vows (Pratigya) of Ambedkar

 Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar embraced Buddhism on 14 October, 1956, the Vijay Dakshami and  Dassara day. On 15th October again a conversion to Buddhism was held  at the same venue On 16 October 1956, Ambedkar performed another mass religious conversion ceremony at Chanda. After receiving ordination, Ambedkar gave Dhamma Diksha to his followers. The ceremony included 22 vows given to all new converts after  Three Jewels (The Bhudda, theDharma and The Sangha) and Five Precepts( to  strictly adhere to non violence or Ahinsa, committing no theft,  avoidance of sensual (including sexual) misconduct, to always speak truth and  to stictly avoid  taking intoxicants which lead to loss of mindfulness (specifically, drugs and alcohol)

Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prescribed 22 vows to his followers:-
  1. I shall have no faith in Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara nor shall I worship them.
  2. I shall have no faith in Rama and Krishna who are believed to be incarnation of God nor shall I worship them.
  3. I shall have no faith in Gauri, Ganapati and other gods and goddesses of Hindus nor shall I worship them.
  4. I do not believe in the incarnation of God.
  5. I do not and shall not believe that Lord Buddha was the incarnation of Vishnu. I believe this to be sheer madness and false propaganda.
  6. I shall not perform Shraddha nor shall I give pind-dan.
  7. I shall not act in a manner violating the principles and teachings of the Buddha.
  8. I shall not allow any ceremonies to be performed by Brahmins.
  9. I shall believe in the equality of man.
  10. I shall endeavor to establish equality.
  11. I shall follow the noble eightfold path of the Buddha.
  12. I shall follow the ten paramitas prescribed by the Buddha.
  13. I shall have compassion and loving kindness for all living beings and protect them.
  14. I shall not steal.
  15. I shall not tell lies.
  16. I shall not commit carnal( sensual) sins.
  17. I shall not take intoxicants like liquor, drugs etc.
  18. I shall endeavor to follow the noble eightfold path and practice compassion and loving kindness in every day life.
  19. I renounce Hinduism, which is harmful for humanity and impedes the advancement and development of humanity because it is based on inequality, and adopt Buddhism as my religion.
  20. I firmly believe the Dhamma of the Buddha is the only true religion.
  21. I believe that I am having a re-birth.
  22. I solemnly declare and affirm that I shall hereafter lead my life according to the principles and teachings of the Buddha and his Dhamma.
Nowadays many Ambedkarite Organizations are working for these 22 vows (i.e. 22 Pratigya). They believe that these vows only are responsible for the existence & rapid growth of present Buddhism in India. According to the 2001 census, there are currently 7.95 million Buddhists in India, at least 5.83 million of whom are Buddhists in Maharashtra [8]. This makes Buddhism the fifth-largest religion in India and 6% of the population of Maharashtra, but less than 1% of the overall population of India.

Some Important Facets of Dr.Ambedkar’s Life

           The life storey of Bharat Ratana Baba Sahib Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar is a saga of great struggles and achievements. Dr.Ambedkar usted to compare himself with Moses, Who (Moses) wanted to relieve the Israelis from the forced labour and their unending servitude so led his people to palestine. Dr.Ambedkar led his peoples to break the yoke of religious, political, social & economic barriers imposed by Hindu unnatural laws framed against his peoples called Shudras, Ati Shudras and untouchables. Dr.Ambedkar Catalogued expanded and interpreted the code of laws of his country. He was opposed to Mahatma Gandhi in many ways, still keeping in view Dr.Ambedkar’s contributions for the Indian Nation, Mahatma Gandhi described him as a man who has carved out in society a unique postion for himself and he is no a man to allow himself to be forgotten. Perhaps he was born to cut the age old caste shackles of his peoples, which had reduced their life to even below of those of animals.
     Life Sketch :- Bharat Ratana Baba Saheb Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar was born on 14th April 1891 at Mhow to revered Subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal & Mata Bhimbai in Mahar Community. It is said that Mahars were the rulers of Marashtra (Mahar + Rashtra) but because of Hindu hegemony and caste based values, they were reduced to the level of Untouchables, Shudras, Ati Shudras, whose only shadow was considered enough to pollute an upper caste Hindu. Ambedkar worked over 18 hurs a day and at times sky was his roof and the earth his floor; Bhimrao was married to Ramabai at the tender age of 17 years when his spouse was only of 9 years. Mata Ramabai stood like a rock by her Saheb till her death on May 27, 1935. Due to hard work of father & son, Bhimrao earned world’s highest academic Degrees of D.Sc (London); PhD &LL.D (Columbia); M.A; D.lit (Osmania) Bar-at law (London). Dr. Ambedkar knew seven languages. Dr Ambedkar  also served on highly prestigious positions as Labour member of Viceroy’s Executive Council (1942-46); First Law Minister of Independent India & aarned the distinction of selection as Chairman of the constitution Drafting Committee to draft constitution for free India & also is so called “father of Indian constitution “Some called him Mother of Indian Constitution as well. He proved an emancipator for Dalits, a torch bearer for the liberation of slaves’ world over and an insurmountable rock for his opponents. He contributed for the freedom of India, but more for the Dalits,  who were slaves to the slaves  of British India. He was highly praised by those who understood his just cause for the liberation of his Dalit community persons, but also abused as traitor by those who never appreciated his mission of life and wanted to maintain status-quo in social, political, educational, economic and religious spheres even after independence. He was change and often said” Consistency is a virtue of an ass”.
Personalities who influenced Ambedkar the most: -
A)    Subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal :- Honesty, Hard working, dedication, urge to get higher education, boldness in his conduct and to work for elevation of his fellow untouchables was learned by Abmedkar fromhis father subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal.
B)    Kabir: - Dr.Ambedkar’s family belonged to the devotional path shown by Sadguru Kabir ji, a great Dalit Saint Devotional songs of Kabir Ji were daily sung with love by the family, which affected the tender mind set of child Bhimrao. Kabir Ji’s verses including “Jat Pat Pushey Na Koye, Har Ko Bhaje so har Ka hoi” i.e Caste does not decided your fate, but your devotion to lord is supereme. Kabir Ji was taken as Ambedkar’s Second Guru, first being Budha.
C)    Budha : - The Budha philosophy influenced Ambedkar the most. He like Budha revolted against Vedas, upanishadas, un-natural Brahminical division of the humans, he studied Bhudha deeply, so like rites, rituals, religious ceremonies, sacrifice. He was firm believer like Budha that every individual was the maker or spoiler of one’s destiny. Budha never proclaimed himself as God, Avtar or His incarnation, so influenced the inner mind of Dr.Ambedkar. When he got convinced that Hinduism was immune to reform, he brought back Buddha to India by embracing Buddhism on 14th October 1956 along with over three lacs of men & women. Dr.Ambedkar lived for 52 days after conversion to Buddhism and during this small period over Five Lacs Dalits got convertedto Buddhism. Dr.Ambedkar in his last days wrote a master book of 599 pages on Buddhism “Buddha and His Dramma”.
D)    Jyotiba Phule :- Jyotiba Phule was the greatest Shudra of modern India, who made Hindu untouchables conscious of their slavery to the Upper Caste Hindus. He gave the gospel that in India, Social democracy was more vital that independence form foreign rule. Phule started 18 schools Poona for girls against staunch opposition from the caste Hindus as education for women was sin in Hindu Manu Laws. He is considered as political Guru of Dr.Ambedkar and both were convinced that al men are equal by birth so need to be provided equal opportunities for progress in all spheres. Both fought throughout their lives to break social & economical barriers erected to segregate men on their castes at birth.
E)    Booker T.Washington :- During Dr.Ambedkar’s stay in America, he was influenced by the Constitution of U.S.A and its fourteenth Amendment declaring freedom to Negroes. He was also influenced mostby the life of Booker T.Washington  a great revolutionary, educator, reformer, Negro leade, who founded and remained President of Tuskegee Institute, which disseminated among Negroes the gospel of education of the head, heart and hand and thus broke the barriers of bondage through which negroes were crushed for ages physically, educationally, mentally, socially & spiritually. Booker T.Washington died in 1915 when Dr.Ambedkar was in America and passed his M.A.Degree Dr.Ambedkar learnt from the life storey of Booker T.Washtington the spririt of fight for the cause of freedom of his brethren untouchables, who wre treated even worst than Negroes, in Indian society.
F)     John Dewey :-  John Dewey was his mentor at Columbia University, whose philosophy helped shape Dr.Ambedkar towards a critical analysis of the hard problems facing the society. He advocated dynamic and pragmatic approach to driver the humanity out of the troubles it was confronted with. Both criticized the old philosophers, who advocated idealism and other obsolete things. John Dewey’s method of inquiry had influenced Ambedkar to deal with hard and painful situations. Both were practical political scientist, so paid pointed attention to practical rather thatn mere academic politics. Ambedkar learnt from Dewey’s emphasis on education as means to change the world and not only to understand it. Both believed that Education should be capable of creating human values having universal application. Both established themselves on everyday life of an average man in their respective countries. Dr.Abmedkar’s association with John Dewey provided the basis for a systematic study and analysis of problems relating to politics, economics, society religion & history. Ambedkar’s conclusion that society is equally is not more aggressive and tyrannical than the Government, is based on deep study of these subject.
G)   J.S Mill :- Dr.Ambedkar was greatly influenced from the writing of Mill, a great political philosopher as he too had advocated freedom of thought, freedom of speech and freedom of action. Mill’s philosophy moulded the political philosophy of Ambedkar.
H)    Ranade :- Life & work story of Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, father of Indian Socio-political revolution cast a great influence on Dr.Ambedkar. Dr.Ambdar was called upon to deliver 101st Birthday Anniversy address of Justice Ranade which fell on 18th January 1940. Dr.Ambedkar learnt about Ranade, When he retrieved from the old papers of his father, a petition drafted by Justice by Justice Ranade against banningrecruitment of Mahars into Indian Army in 1892. Philosophy of Justice Ranade was summed up by Dr.Ambedkar himself as
i)                    We should not hold ideals purely imaginary.
ii)                  In politics sentiments and temperaments of the people are more important that intellect and theory.
iii)                In political negotiations the rule should be what is possible, that does not mean that we should be content with what is offered.
Why Ambedkar agreed with the terms of Poona Pact of 1932 with Mahatma Gandhi and other caste Hindus by sacrificing the benefits of the Communal Award cab be assessed from his above said political philosophy.
I)       Karl Marx: - Dr.Ambedkar was also immensely influenced by Karl Marx’s theory of class struggle as he was aware of the merciless exploitation of the poor all over the world. But in India poor were exploited both by rich and Higher Caste Hindus alike. While explaining difference between Class & Caste Dr.Ambedkar observed “Downtrodden people of India are first to be fired and last to be hired”. Dr.Ambedkar was of the firm view of uniting the exploited people and make them realize being slaves, so they shall revolt against it. But Dr.Ambedkar differed with Marx on the point that suffering was not only from the economic factors as well. Ambedkar had experienced religious tyranny more severe & organized that state tyranny and poverty ridden upper caste Hindus were equally or even more cruel towards poor untouchables.
J)      Crusader of Dalit Education: - Ambedkar was convinced that education besides being means of livelihood was a powerful weapon to liberate the Dalits from ignorance and to strengthen their fight against injustice Dalits. So he gave his Golden slogan to Dalits “Educate, Agitate, Organise. “To prepare his peoples to safeguard their Human Rights through spread of his message more effectively, he started journals namely Mook Nayak (Leader of the Dumb), Bahiskrit Bharat (Excluded India), Samta (Equality) Janta (Peoples). He picked up lesson from the strong noteof Bernard Shaw, “ Honest education is dangerous  to tyranny and privilege; the system like Capitalist system kept in vogue the popular ignorance, Churches which depend upon it for priestly authority, privileged classes and ambiguous conquerors and dictators, who have to instill royalty and romantic hero worship, all use ignorance and education as underpinning for general faith in themselves as rulers” so to negate the ill effects of his people and to equip them with quality education, he opened Mallind Mahavidhalaya Aurangabad (maharashtra); Sidharath College of Commerce and Economics Bombay; and Siddhartha Law College Bombay. Ambedkar built this house “Rajgrih” in Bombay to house a library.
K)   Indian Women Liberator: - The woman was considered lowest of the low in the Indian society, so Ambedkar fought a very difficult battle for their cause. He blew bugle of fight against discrimination and exploitation on the basis of one’s caste, creed, sex or place of birth. His principle of life was to speak, work & fight for the just cause of oppressed, depressed, exploited, illiterates, ill fed & ill treated men & women irrespective of their caste or social status, place of birth affiliations and without caring for his personal comforts. On March 19-20, 1927 he addressed a huge meeting ad depressed classes including women, and gave strong call for liberation of women. He advised them to attend more to their development of mind and the spirit of self help; He said that education was as necessary for development of women as was for men. He declared “ As you are, so shall be your children”. While addressing largely attended Depressed Classes Women conference on 18-19 July 1942, he said, “He measured the progress of a community by the degree of progress made by the women of that community. He advised, let every girl who marries, stand by her husband, claim to be here husband’s friend and equal and refuse to be his slave. He advocated avoiding early marriage and producing too many children. Give proper education to your children, so that they live a dignified life”. Dr.Ambedkar advocated for equal wages for equal work without discrimination on the basis of sex or caste, besides grant of paid maternity leave to expecting mothers. While strongly supporting proposed maternity benefits to women in Bombay Legislative Council in 1928 he said, “---- it is in the interest of the Nation that the mother ought to get a certain amount of rest during the pre-natal period and also subsequently.” The first law Minister of Independent India was disappointed due to non passage of the Hindu Code Bill, as was conceived by him and promised support by Pt.Nehru. He sacrificed his cabinet Law Ministry and resigned on Sept. 27, 1951 as a matter of protest.
L)    Modern Manu:- To register his strong resentment against Manu Smiriti, Hindu Law Book, which closed all doors of education and to have dignified life avenues for shudras including Hindus women, Dr.Ambedkar burnt it in full public view on 24th December 1927 with promise to give new laws based on the doctrine of equality for al men and women irrespective of their caste, creed, place of birth, sex and economic status. This promise he fulfilled by way of enshrining liberty, equality and fraternity as the basic principles of socialist democracy in the constitution of India. Ambedkar regarded the waging of a battle against social bans as his religion.
M)  Striver of Dignity :- Dr.Ambedkar a great believer in living with human dignity, was denied water from common source as student, college professor, military Secretary of Baroda State, so organized his fight for right to draw water from the Chavdar public water Tank at Mahad for his people on 20th March, 1927. He was driven out of temples.  Untouchables organized a peaceful march to have entry into Kala Ram temple at Nasik, but Caste Hindus resisted their entry by closing al the fourteen doors of the temple. So on 2nd March, 1930, a long march was organized under leadership of Ambedkar to have forceful entry, where large number of untouchables including Ambedkar himself was injured from stone pelting of Brahmins. Ambedkar from the rigidity of the caste Hindus visualize futility of such struggles so he decided to leave Hindus religion, as he was convinced that Hindu religion was immune to any reform.
N)    Dispute with Gandhi: - Although on Gandhi’s instance Ambedkar was made Chairman of the Drafting Committee of Free India’s Republic constitution, Ambedkar held divergent views on various matter concerning Indian community, particularly Minorities than Gandhi Ji. Shri M.K.Gandhi was called Mahatma by all but Ambedkar, who said “Mahatmas have come and Mahatmas gone but problems of untouchables have remained the same.” Mahatma Gandhi Sanatani Hindu held the reviews that in free India Hindus should be given time to reform themselves and express their repentance fo rhte past sins of ill treating untouchables. The removal of untouchability and economic reforms for untouchables should not create ill will among Hindus. Education to Dalits & initiation of other economic reforms for them in free India shall remove the age old stigma of untouchability automatically. Gandhi opposed Separate Electorates for Scheduled Castes only & went on Fast unto death in Yarwada jail in Poona against it.
Ambedkar was convinced from the ill treatment meted out to him in person and his depressed brethren by Upper caste Hindus needed surgical treatment. Although Ambedkar pleaded to British Government to give freedom to India as it had failed to watch the interests of depressed classes by siding with caste Hindus on this subject, but he held interests of his people more dear than granting of even freedom the British Raj. He was pleader of equal rights and welfare measures in free India as a matter of right for the slaves of Slaves of British India say Depressed India. He opposed Gandhi & congress for the opposition to main demand of separate Electorates granted under Simon commission or communal Award, but still saved Mahatma’s life by signing Poona Pact on 27th August, 1932 under duress, for larger National interests. Ambedkar opposed the half hearted welfare measures initiated by the Congress Party for the Scheduled Castes and held the view that these were more propaganda stunt that having motto of solving their religious, educational, social and economic problems and free them from the stigma of obligations. Ambedkar wanted Constitutional Rights for his people so that they could stand with erect spine. On 5th November 1946 Baba Sahib demanded annulment of the Poona Pact and implementation of the Communal Award of the British Government.  In  1938 while addressing peasants rally he said, “ There are only two classes in the world—the exploiters and exploited. Peasents and workers must unite  selflessly and send their representatives to the Legislative Assembly for their own improvement”.
When the Hindus organized a meeting in Mumbai on 30 September 1932, (i.e., a week after the signing of the Poona Pact), to form an All-India Anti-Untouchability League, Gandhi, changed it to ‘Servants of Untouchables Society’. It was on this occasion that the Hindus joined together to fight against untouchability. There were eight members on the board. Dr Ambedkar, Rao Bahadur M.C.Rajah (1883-1947) and  Dewan Bahadur Rattamalai. Srinivasan ( 1860-1945) were included as representatives of the untouchables. All three subsequently withdrew from the board. Gandhi then renamed it as Harijan Seva Sangh. While explaining reasons to join this forum, ‘After the Poona Pact, I proceeded in a spirit of forget and forgive. I accepted the bona fides of Mr. Gandhi as I was asked to do by many of his friends. It was in that spirit that I accepted a place on the Central Board of the Sangh and was looking forward to play my part in its activities’.  He wanted to discuss the programme of the Sangh with Gandhi but could not do so as he had to leave for London to participate in the Third Round Table Conference. However, Dr. Ambedkar did write a detailed letter to A.V. Thakkar, Secretary of the Sangh, giving concrete proposals regarding the services to be rendered by the Sangh. The Depressed classes representative wanted the forum to concentrate on a programme ‘that will effect a change in the social environment of the Depressed Classes’
      The programmed drafted by Dr.Ambedkar had four components: (i) A campaign to secure civil rights; (ii) Equality of opportunity; (iii) Social intercourse; and (iv) Agency to be employed. The League was to employ a large army of workers to carry out this programme. Persons belonging to the Depressed Classes were to also be appointed, who alone ‘will regard the work as love’s labour’.But the Anti-Untouchability League did not pay any attention to these proposals; they did not even acknowledge Dr Ambedkar’s letter. The Congress used the ‘Harijan Seva Sangh’ to kill the movement of empowering untouchables after the withdrawal of these three representatives of the Depressed classes from the League. Sensing the crook ness of mind of the Hindus the Poona Pact was asked to be scraped by Dr Ambedkar 5thNovember 1946 and demanded enactment of the separate electorates for the Dalits as per the communal Award.
O)    Constitutional Expert:- Ambedkar himself was a par excellent, world class Constitutional expert. He had equipped himself with world’s highest academic Law degrees. He worked as Law Professor in Bombay College for a short time. He has tremendous insight into intricacies of education, law, social sciences, economics and religious principles. He held the view that public representatives should not only be experts (Gyanwan) but should have imbibed in them virtues (Sheel). He said “Gyan without Sheel is dangerous.” He gave free Indian Republic the world’s voluminous Constitution based on the principles of equality to all so as to have fraternity among its citizens. He was for the State to be a welfare State.
P)      As a parliamentarian: - His ability as a representative of Untouchables was displayed in the three Roundtable Conferences in London, where ways & means were discussed for the future Indian Constitution. He gave an insight of the miserable plight of his people’s viz. Untouchables in British India and pleaded for Indian Freedom with equal rights based on Human Rights. His crusade for liberation of his people got firm roots with his election as member of Bombay Legislative council on 17th February 1937 and it continued till his death on 6th December 1956. While speaking on the role of peoples representatives he said “No hungry man is going to be sympathetic to a critic who is going to tell him” my dear fellow although I am in power, although I am in authority, although I possess all legal power to set matters right, you must not expect me to do a miracle because I have inherited a past which is very inglorious --- “If this Government will not produced results with in certain time, long before the people became so frustrated, so disgusted with Government as not have a Government at all. To the parliamentarians of our country Dr Ambedkar cautioned “I suppose, unless we in parliament realize our responsibilities and shoulder the task of looking after the welfare and good of people within a reasonable time, this Parliament will be treated by the public outside with utter contempt. It would be a thing not wanted at all.”
The greatest tributes to this great son of India shall be to follow his ideals of making State as a welfare State and to strive by all practical means to create situation for flourishing of fraternity among its peoples without discrimination of caste, creed, sex, economic, social, religious and place of birth affiliations