Friday, January 5, 2018

Mata savitribai Phuley and Indian Women Social Revolutionary and the First woman Teacherof India.

Remembering The First Woman Educationist Of India on her 188th Jyanti falling on 3rd January 2018
 Enlarged and updated Essay  
saviti bai photoIndian culture may boast about having female goddesses, saints and poets. It may boast about being the largest democracy in the world and likely hood of being a super power in near future. But the truth is that female oppression is distinctively visible in India till this day, more so in lower class than higher class. Women belonging to the lower class face problems and discrimination due to high percentage of illiteracy among the people and also due to the very orthodox religion that they follow. The discrimination faced by these women is mainly the effect of unjust ancient laws and customs passed down from generation to generation. Due to the lack of education among the lower class, these unjust laws and customs were/ are never challenged but widely accepted. One of the evil practices that is very rarely followed nowadays is female infanticide. Female infants killed in womb and not allowed to see sun light.  Declining female population much below 900 per 1000men is now worrying government agencies. It is believed that girls are a liability for the family. They would cost the family money in the end because of dowry demands. Likewise, the family may feel that they are only rearing girls for someone else, as the girls will eventually become part of the groom's household.
 Education to untouchables and all women in Hindu religion were declared as unlawful in Manu Smiriti the Hindu Law Book. Lack of education in women and untouchable( now called Dalits )made room to other  suppressive controls like untouchability,ignoring right to own property, right to protect one’s property ,sati, Devdasse, dowery, infanticide, life of dignity, slavery, atrocities, and such like inhuman treatment to majority of population by minority population of upper caste Hindus. Only  the caste and caste supported rules roasted the cake. India lost its freedom for centuries as only a microscopic minority  male khashtriyas were assigned the job of defense of the country. Only a hand full invaders came looted India , killed many and ran away with heavy booty includinf our women. With  the establishment of the British East India Company Rule, it paid  no heed towards education in India till 1813. In 1813, for the first time, the Company arranged some funds for promoting education in India. The medium of education was English. By the year 1855, there were only 1474 educational institutions that were run or aided by the government for the population of 200 million. Only 67,569 student were getting education from these intuitions. Since majority teachers in these schools were Brahmins, they refused to educate the Dalit students even  in the govt. aided schools .Even upper class students and their parents disallowed reading in the classes having Dalit students. There were about 1628 Christian missionary schools with about 64,000 students in them. Since the Wood’s Dispatch of 1854 by 1882, the government took some important steps for higher education, but primary education was almost neglected. In the economical year of 1881-82, out of 70,00, 000 rupees spent by government on education, only 16,77,000 were spent on primary education. On this background, The first women known in the Indian history which lived and died for the social upliftment of down trodden. Her name was Savitribai who was born on 3rd of January 1831 in Naya Ganj , Tehsil Khandala ,District Satara of Maharashtra. Her father’s name was Khado Ji Nevse Patil . At the time of her birth, no body could realize that the small ray of light which had descended on the earth in the form of Savitribai shall become a torch bearer for many, who were suppressed, illiterate, ill fed , ill clothed and a lightening for suppressors and oppressors inflicting tyranny in the name of caste and sex, on millions belonging to their own country and religion .                                                                                                  At the tender age of 9 years in 1840, she was married to a great social revolutionary Jyotirao Phule, who was then 13 years old. The union of two small lights later emerged as a big Light House for millions of their fellow countrymen and pulled them out of their ignorance, illiteracy and ill treatment meted out to them by upper caste Hindus. They jointly fought for   the down trodden people of India to live with dignity keeping spine erect. Jyotirao Phule, later affectionately called Mahatma Jyotirao( Jyotiba) Phule proclaimed that illiteracy the ill of all ills causes lack of intellect which in turn causes lack of moral which results in stagnation, promoting   further  loss of riches  and fortune which caused fall of Shudras. So ban of education to Shudras and women in Brahminical literature caused their all round degradation, so he gave preference to impart education to Shudras for their over all upliftment. The Education to Savitribhai was imparted at home by her husband besides in their school and in Christian Missionary school. Jyotirao Phuley had passed his Secondary Education Examination in 1847 from Scottish Mission High School Poona and  had decided not to accept any job under the government.  On reading Paine’s famous book “The Rights of Man” revolutionized the young mind of Jyotirao Phule and he in turn influenced the tender mind of Savitribhai, who also took oath to help her husband for Social Revolution even at the cost of her life and comforts.                                                                                
Phuley couple opened the very first Girl’s School on 1st January,1848 against the vicious campaign launched by orthodox upper caste Hindus for such an act of the Phule couple, as education to girls was coded as unlawful in the laws of orthodox Hindus, although they claimed to possess the most knowledgeable books called “VEDAS” but practically treating Shudras & women worse than animals. No upper caste Hindu teacher came forward to teach in this newly opened Girl’s School in which untouchables girls , besides Hindu Girl’s were admitted. Therefore, Savitribai was appointed as Headmistress of this school on I st January 1848 by Jyotirao Phule. This school was run from the house of a Brahmin in Budhwara Peth, with majority of Brahmin girl students. The orthodox Brahmins raised a great hue & cry against carrying on women education including those of Shudra girls, which stood banned by the Hindu scripture. As soon as Savitribai came out from her house to go to school, people would throw on her cow dung and mud spoiling here dress, which she washed at the school and at her residence on return. However ill treatment meted out to her by upper caste Hindus did not deter her from her strong convictions and she carried on with the noble cause for the social change. She, instead, opened another school on 15th May 1848 in untouchable’s colony and it was run by her widowed sister –in-law  Sagunabai (husband ‘s cousin  sister) Smt. Suganabai. On this again the reactionaries, raised objections and threatened Govinda Rao (Jyotirao ’s father) with dire consequences, if, he failed to dissociate himself from the activities of his son & daughter-in-law. So he asked the couple to leave his home as both of them refused to give up their missionary endeavor. Both shifted to a Muslim Mian  Usman Sheikh’s house. Smt. Fatima Sister of Mian Sheikh known as first Muslim women teacher of 19th century, started educating Dalit children in this school. This was an extremely difficult task during those days of Brahmin domination in government and social circles, but Savitribai did it by dint of her courage, determination, intelligence and her commitment to the cause of Dalit  and woman upliftment through spread of Education  She thought  this to be  the only road to their empowerment. Yotirao Phule blamed the British Government for spending profusely a large portion of the state revenue on the education of the higher castes, which resulted in monopoly of all higher offices under the Government by the Brahmins. The dedicated couple wanted to break this monopoly so as to prepare the down trodden masses for struggle of having equal rights as human beings in their own motherland. Jyotirao Phule for  loooooooooooooooooooooooooooooukthe first time. Lord Rippon appointed an education commission under the chairmanship of William Hunter. This commission reiterated the key points of the Wood’s Dispatch, though it suggested paying more attention of primary education and education to backward classes. The memorial to Hunter Commission by Mahatma Phule is a document of immense importance to understand the educational developments in Modern India. In this document, Phule argues that the theory adopted by government that education should go down from the upper classes of society to the masses is nothing but a “utopian” idea. He further goes on to ask for a single example of the truth of this theory. To quote him, the higher classes have “kept their knowledge to themselves, as a personal gift, not be soiled by contact of the ignorant vulgar.” He claims that the educational system has become a monopoly of the higher classes and “if the welfare of the Ryot is at heart, if it is the duty of the Government to check a host of abuses, it behooves them to narrow this monopoly day by day so as to allow a sprinkling of the other castes to get into the public services.” Mahatama Phuley made strong demand in memorandum submitted to Hunter Commission in 1882 for free & compulsory education to all. This plea was later accepted on the instance of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar and he even incorporated the ideal in the Constitution of Free India as the “The father of Indian Constitution”.
                Widow re-marriage was banned then and the child marriages were very common among the Hindus including Brahmins. Many Hindu widows resorted to Sati (burning of the bride with the dead body of their husbands) in full public view.   In view of then prevailing of custom of Child marriage, so many girls got widows in their childhood. Many women windowed in their young age and not all of them could live in a manner in which orthodox people expected them to live particularly when their male relatives exploited helpless widows sexually. Some of the helpless widows resorted to abortion or left their illegitimate children to their fate by leaving them on the streets. Out of pity for them Jyotirao Phule established on orphanage, possibly first such Institution founded and funded by a Hindu. The Phule couple gave protection to pregnant widows and assured them that this orphanage would take care of their children and Savitribai Phule Shouldered the responsibility of managing the orphanage. It was in this orphanage where a Brahmin widow named Kashibai gave birth to a boy in 1873 and the Phule couple adopted new born as their son and heir giving him name as Yashuwant( Glory), who was imparted education to become a qualified doctor. During 1876-77 famine she feed and cared about 2000 children with the help of her doctor son free of cost. She was a great source of strength to her husband.  The widows had to get their heads tonsured for life. Phuley couple while opposing it  organized the barbers to stop shaving of heads of widows. The barbers agreed and stopped this inhuman practice.  They even when on  strike to press their resolve and oppose those who threatened them with dir consequences.
 Phuley couple supported widow remarriage and arranged on 8th March,1860 in  Gokhale garden widow re-marriage.  The copule belonged to Saini caste. This  act of Phuley’s  was also opposed by orthodox caste Hindus.
                Savitribai was not only an educationist but a great philanthropist, social revolutionary, writer and poet. Perhaps she was the first Indian woman revolutionary who worked against all odds for the emancipation of Dalits, week and downtrodden women & children.  Her poetry book first published in 1854 was titled as “KABYE PHULE” had 41 peoms . She used to recite her  peoms to heIp illiterate women to grasp the theme of her preaching. In one of her poems she makes out that the British succeeded in establishing their rule in India due to denial of Educational opportunities by the Aryans to the original inhabitants of India. During various invasions the 85% of the population were made mute spectators. When their motherland was occupied forcibly by the foreign invaders, for which nobody else but Brahmins and caste system were responsible. When she was told by her brother to follow the path shown by Bhats (Brahmins) she rebuked him by telling that she was following the just path being followed by her husband and she could not be blind follower of Brahmins like her brother. She also tauntingly said to him, “Go and love the cow and the goat and offer milk to snakes on Nagpanchmi,, even then the Brahmins shall turn you out of Puja Sathal branding you as untouchables. This shows her strong conviction and will power, when actually she was very poised lady having her heart filled with love for all.After the death of her husband in November 1890, she successfully managed for seven years the affairs of “SATYA SHODAK-SAMAJ”(  Society for the Search of Truth) established by her husband to spraed the message of oneness and unity while following righteous path.  It decried the supremacy of the Hindu Religion Prohits and falsehood of religious dogmas and rituals.  Marriages were arranged with out any Prohit services. Brahmins opposed it and lodged a law suit against Jyotirao Phuley  in Poona court spleading it effected their livelihood. This case was won by Jyotirao Phuley from higher court at Bombay( Now Mumbai)   Also the services of prohits were proposed to be  dispensed with during last rites of dead.                                                                                                                   During the spread of Cholera in Maharashtra in 1897 she opened a number of helping centers for all sufferers in rural and urban areas. She used to carry patients personally to the clinic of her son Yashuwant, who cured hundreds of them free of cost.  While carrying personally a cholera ridden Mahar boy to the clinic of her son and to get him admitted there, she got infected from the Mahar boy and she died of cholera on the 10th of March 1897.                                                                                                                                                                                    We salute the iron lady who struck hard to break the shackles of religious progeny, caste and dynasty to establish social order of Universal Brotherhood. She was first Indian women leader, who worked for the upliftment & dignity of women & children and was a staunch opponent of orthodox laws including Untouchability. She was mother to helpless orphans, a teacher to illiterates and solace to ill and suffering masses. She deserved to be honored as “Mother of Women Education in India”    other women who lent helping hand to savitribai Phuley were Pandita Ramabai, a Brahmin woman. Panditia Ramabai who was leading advocate for the rights and welfare for the women in India; Tarabai Shinde, the non-Brahmin author of a fiery tract on gender inequality which was largely ignored at the time but has recently become well-known; and Muktabai, a fourteen-year-old pupil in Phule's school, whose essay on the social oppression of the Mang and Mahar castes is also now famous.                                                                                                                    She is even now a source of inspiration for establishing a rule based on equality, justice and fraternity. Let us draw inspiration from her life& works and re-dedicate ourselves for the service of down trodden and Dalits besides those sections of society who are deprived of equal opportunities of life.                   Words:-2322                                                                                                    
                                                                                             Er. HEM RAJ PHONSA
                                                                                            Retd. Executive Engineer (from California)
        References:-      (I)  The Nagmay Sanskriti   Ujjain (MP) Dated 8-7-1997.
           (II)  Slavery By Mahatma Jotirao Phule (Vol I) Translated by Prof.P.G. Patil
                     Education Deptt.   Govt of Maharastra Bombay 1991
Jotibha Phule (Hindi) By Durga Prasad Shukal NCERT April 1991
 Dr Ambedkar & His Mission            By Danajay Keer
               v) Shoshit Samaj Ke Krantikari Pravertak ( Hindi) by C.S. Bhandari Publishars: Samyak Prakashan  32/3 Club Road Pashim Puri N Delhi                                                                                     

Monday, November 20, 2017

Let Us Know More About Bharat Ratana Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.

  Many firsts to the credit of Baba Sahib  Dr.B.R.Ambedkar.
                 (Reverential Tributes on his 61st  Mahaparinirwan Divas falling on 6th December,2017)                                                                                            
                     By  :- Er. H. R. Phonsa
It is prudently said that some  people are born great others are made great and still others become great by surmounting hurdles in their paths by themselves. Another philosopher said that some people read history, some teach history, some people make history and a few become history by themselves. As per both these statements Dr. Ambedkar fell in the last category of people who become history by overcoming all worldly barriers in his way. There was not even a singly favourable hurdle free step in his life.  There was not even a single act of his life which did not warrant him to use his highest skills. He rarely earned anything through favour or courtesy of others. All throughout his life he had to row against the currents. He was born in rags and died with rupees Forty thousand debt, bore loincloth in school , sat alone on the  corner of  classroom floor many times in outside school veranda , remained  thirsty for hours , hated as untouchable  by  his classmates, teachers, students, follow politicians including his office Brahmin peon. He slept on floor; lived night through on single loaf of bread but was first to reach daily the entry gate of London Museum and last to leave it.  He was termed as poor man’s lawyer despite his world class Law Degrees. He restored all lost hopes of Jedhe-Jawalkar and R D Karve by winning them  their cases in Poona Court. This proved Dr. Ambedkar’s superiority as an imminent lawyer. He has  earned the honour of  being  only one  Asian among the 12 Gay’s personalities whose portrait are displayed in the Gay’s Inn. He was called traitor by his opponents for his caring for those to whom even God never cared. He over worked at the cost of his health and life comforts including family life. He lost his poise and caring wife in her youth and four children (Three sons Romesh , Gangadhar, Rajratana    and one daughter named Indu ) for want  of medicines for their treatment. On the death of his sons son his wife had to tear out a part of her sari to cover the dead child before giving burial. But  Dr. Ambedkar never deviated from the set goal of  securing honouable life conditions to his people whom he loved even dearer to his life. They too stood by his in thick and thin. He often said he was born to safe guard interests of untouchable and he was prepared to offer any sacrifice. He remained awake even during nights to see that their interests were not sabotaged. He never acted against the interests of his country. He said in clear terms in Bombay Legislative Council as its member in 1927 “Whenever there is a conflict between my personnel interests and the interests of country as a whole, I have always placed the claims of the country above my personnel claims --- when there is a conflict in interests between country and the Untouchables, the untouchable’s interests will take precedence over the interests of the country”.  In another statement he said that he was Indian in the beginning, in the middle and in the end.  He said he was not like those who are the Hindu, the Muslim, the Sikh, the Christian and alike first then Indian. Against all odds he did what he thought fit for his peoples and country. He struck to his words and fulfilled promises  made with his people. Dr. Ambedkar was convinced that Hindus shall never cherish getting the human rights to Depressed classes people. Show of  love of Hindus  for the Dalits  was to use them for their numbers and for their  unpaid services. Mahatama Gandhi a Snatani Hindu to core has acknowledged that Dr. Ambedkar  was the greatest Challenge to Hinduism. Dr. Ambedkar  declared in 1935 that he shall not die as a Hindu and he full filled this promise on 14th October 1956 only  52 days before his death by embracing Buddhism along with nearly ten Lacs of his followers .  Such en-mass religion  change by choice  was perhaps  the only example in world history. He was opponent to religious superstitions and rigidity. He was against none but suppression, hate and denial of political, social, educational and economic rights to Dalits including women. He waslower caste Mahar Dalit but adopted his surname “Ambedkar” from his soft hearted Brahmin teacher and  he re- married Dr. Sharda Kabir ( later  Mrs.Savita Ambedkar)a Maharashtrian Brahmin Saraswati  bride.  Some of good hearted friends, colleagues and teachers were from higher castes, so he enjoyed confidence of all those who stood for welfare of humanity at large. Had he not born at the right hour of history, the present history of poor, women, unprivileged, hated Dalit untouchables and working class people would have been completely different with their slavery chains intact andthe Constitutional rights for millions would have been buried deep in the free Indian soil? Whatever he did during his life he did with conviction, whatever he spoke or wrote, it was historic truth backed by deep studied. He remained loyal to his people and his country, the Bharat.  He never said a word against any religion, but challenged religion based inhuman norms, “ isms”  in them of hate to wards humanity more so to  their own religious fellows, who did not toe their( Brahmins) wrong convictions. He was Masiha or saviour of poor, deprived, hated and neglected humanity. He was the only highest qualified academician, who entered the Indian politics. Politicians of his times proved dwarfs to his qualifications, qualities, character, labour and steadfastness to commitments.  Despite all odds Bharat Ratana Baba Sahib Bhimrao Ambedkar was credited with such unique qualities that whatever field he touched, he left on it indelible marks of his scholarly intellect. He was born on 14th April,1891 in a poor Dalit Mahar family carrying history of military service. Bhimrao Ambedkar’s grandfather Maloji Sakhpal was a Havaldar in the British Army and his father Ramji Sakhpal was Subedar Major in Bombay Army of the East India Company. Dr. Ambedkar too joined service as the Military Secretary to the   Maharaja of Baroda, who had granted scholarship to Bhim for his higher studies abroad. Later Dr. Ambedkar was to be appointed as Finance Minister of the Baroda state but the unbearable caste based hate and prejudices forced him to soon resign. The arrogant behaviour of a Brahmin peon with Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar deprived, the kingdom of Baroda  of the scholarly services  of economist of world repute. Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar never compromised with his self honour and honour of his people. He preached to his fellowmen to live with dignity keeping spine erect. He succeeded in getting legal provisions and privileges for his people in t he Constitution of free India of which he was the Father. The worst enemy of Dalits and women, the Practice of untouchability in any of its form was made punishable offence in the Constitution of India. This negated the inhuman Hindu Laws of Manu. Earlier on 25th December 1925 Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar had burnt the Manusmriti page by page in full public view.
 Dr .Ambedkar was the first in his community to pass Matriculation Examination in 1907 .He was first Dalit to get education in foreign lands in one of most prestigious world Universities like Columbia University USA, London School Of Economics U.K, Bonn University in Germany,  Bar at the Gray’s Inn. He was rare of rarest Indian who obtained M.A; PhD ; DSc.; Barrister –at- Law; LL.D; D. Litt and many more Honorary Degrees from many  foreign Universities. It is also a hard fact that despite being a world class supper human, he was not given any befitting honour by his Alma Mater the University Of Bombay during his life times.  He was a reputed scholar in Economics, Political Sciences, Law, Constitutional Law, Anthropology, and Religion Philosophy.  He was a great teacher also, backed by his deep studies of the subjects he taught.  Perhaps he was  first among Dalits  to be appointed professor ( June 1928 to March 1929) and  to  occupy the chair of the  Principal of the Government Law College Bombay( Now Mumbai)  affiliated to Bombay University June 1,1935 to May 1938 where he was hated during his studies.
 Dr. Ambedkar observed that the journalism which was earlier a profession had turned into business exploitation in the hands of capitalists. Dr Ambedkar sensed the need of a news paper of his own and said a leader without a news paper was like a bird without wings. He was perhaps the first Dalit to enter the  world of journalism  when launched on   the Mook Nayak ( Leader of dumb)  on January 31st,1920 ,on 3rd April,1927 the Bahiskrit Bharat( Excluded India), the Samta( Equality) the Janta ( People) on 24th November,1930,The Prubh Bharat ( Awakened Bharat ).  His writings in these news papers spread his message very quickly among the depressed class masses.  He stated his news papers much earlier than Mahatama Gandhi’s the Harijan, started in February 1933.
Baba Sahib Dr. Ambedkar was first Dalit to be awarded Bharat Ratana in 1990 posthumously after a lapse of 34 years after his death. This shows apathy of the ruling parties towards their National celebrities.
 Hardly anybody could imagine that a Mahar Subedar Major’s 14th child Bhiva  ( Bhimrao’s first name) could one day divert the world attention towards the deplorable  condition of Indian Untouchable millions, seeking constitutional rights for them  in  Round Table conferences called by the mighty British Crown’s Government  in their heartland . Dr. Ambedkar was one of the two Untouchables who were first to be nominated to represent the slaves to the British Indian Slaves. Dr. Ambedkar’s  courage , convections  backed by  world’s highest degrees  forced the  British Crown’s Government along with Indian monarchs, politicians  to listen the woes  of half feed, half naked, illiterates socially lowest of the low through their own representative who had studied world history in foreign lands. He also warned the British to leave India soon as they have failed to make any improvement in the, social, religious, political, educations and economic conditions of poor particularly untouchable millions during their rule.   In the three Round Table conference in London Dr. Ambedkar’s narrations were so logical and force full that  all eye brows were raised to listen the plight of those who had never been represented before, in history in any such official forum.  About his narrations news items were carried by news papers world over with editorials written in praise of the  new found leaders of Indian untouchables.  Not only Dr. Ambedkar’s views were highly acclaimed in all world spheres but they brought dividends for Untouchable in the future governments Of India.  The problems of untouchable were brought on world forum for finding their solutions speedily. This way the British were made to realise their folly of siding with the the exploiters of Dalits by giving  them treatment even worst than animals.
 The British were made to find space for Indian untouchable in the future governance of India. To give political representation to untouchables Simon Commission was established. Dr. Ambedkar’s plea before Simon Commission with other organisations and leaders of Depressed classes was so forceful that the British India government announced   Communal Award   outlining the method  of reserving seats in representative bodies with a right  of  duel  votes to untouchables to use in the future election. This established the existence of untouchables as a definite and separate identity and equal stake holders in the future constitution. Another feather in Dr. Ambedkar’s cap was added.  
On this Mahatama Gandhi backed by Hindu reactionary forces  , under took fast unto death in Yarwada Jail Poona ( Now Pune). Mahatma Gandhi was against granting any political rights to untouchables, saying theirs was an internal social problems to be solved within the frame work of Hindu  Verna system. Dr. Ambedkar disputed Gandhi’s contentions by saying that if it was so, why hate against untouchables had remained intact for centuries. Tremendous   pressure was mounted against Ambedkar to save Mahatma’s life.  Therefore the Poona pact was signed by Dr. Ambedkar under duress to save Gandhi’s life but standing on equal pedestal with those who had denied  evening touch shadow of untouchable but to talk of granting any  human right to them for centuries. Reservation in the provincial and central legislatures, appointments in public services and local bodies with removal of disabilities of the depressed classes were the direct result of the Poona Pact. Denial of  double election and duel voting as per Communal Award or separate electorates, gave  a chance to upper caste political body heads to select dummy candidates from scheduled castes and scheduled Tribes  to contest the reserved seats and be a party to denial of Constitutional Rights to the Dalit communities.
  Dr. Ambedkar himself a great  lover of books and a writer with millions of  readership was the first to burn the Hindu Code book “ Manusmiriti” as Manu, its writer claimed  “It  contain laws  with Divine sanction”. Dr. Ambedkar disputed Manu’s claims by saying .it was devised to give sanctions of inhuman suppression of untouchables and women. He was also first in the history of caste struggle to sip water of Choudar Tank   (  Water Tank) by organising Satyagraha. Taking water from Choudar Tank was banned from centuries for the untouchable Hindus. He was hurt gravely in the melee but did not lose heart to fight law suit instituted against him and his followers. It took him ten years to win the law suit. To register untouchable’s just right to worship in Hindu temples, he organised Kalaram Temple entry struggle on 2nd March, 1930 with his follow men and women. This Dalit organised struggle was carried for five long years but caste Hindus did not yield any ground for untouchable’s right to worship in the Kalaram temple. Even now after nine decades of the temple entry struggle for five years  superstitious Hindus do not allow the Untouchable to enter many of their temples.
Dr. Ambedkar claimed Mahatama jyotirao Phule (1827-1890) as his political guru. When Phule was convinced that illiteracy was main reason of untouchable slavery he along with his wife Mata Savitribai Phuley opened 18 schools in and around Poona ( now Pune) starting from January  1st  in 1848’.Some of these  schools were excursively for girl students of all castes. After a centaury of opening schools by Phuley Couple  Dr. Ambedkar founded People’s Education Society on 8th July, 1945 base on five principles  namely the ideal of knowledge, the ideals of  compassion, the ideal of democracy, the ideal of equality and the ideal of justice is parents.  The primary aim of this society is to promote higher education among the poorer people in general and Buddhists Scheduled Castes a,Scheduled Tribes and other backward Classes in particular. The Peoples Education Society founded “The Milind College, Aurangabad Maharashtra” a most backward area of Maharashtra state. Its foundation was laid by Dr. Ambedkar on 9th July,1953. The People’s Education Society is now manning a large chain of quality educational Institutions giving employment to thousands of youth.
A few more fields where Dr Ambedkar was also first  in his achievements
·        Dr. Ambedkar was youngest of  the 14th Child of his parents.
·        Birth control:-In 1927 there  were only three Indians who were talking about birth control and warning that India will face consequences of neglecting these reforms. These three people were J R D Tata, Dr  B.R. Babasaheb  and R D Karve. Dr Ambedkar locked horns with those, who in the name of tradition and religion, opposed sex education," said historian Hari Narke. R D Karve published a magazine called Samaj Swasthya (society's health) from July 15, 1927 to 1953. The magazine was dedicated to sex and health education to curve growing Indian population It preached birth control methods .Some orthodox  Puneites dragged R D Karve to court, accusing him of spreading and encouraging "obscenity" by talking about sex education. Dr. Ambedkar as   R.D. Karve’s advocate won him the case. ( TOI Pune City edition Apr 14, 2016,)
·         Personal collection of books: 50000 (excluding the collection of  books, which were lost when the ship on which they were dispatched  from London was   torpedoed and sunk by a German submarine)
 Perhaps  there was  nobody else in the world with this much collection of personal books in the human history?
·         To challenge discriminatory rules and systems like a Khoti System,  Mahar Vatan, bonded labour, unequal wages to women workers, long hours of labour in factories or houses on nominal wages, non existence of maternity leave for women workers, non entry of depressed classes students into  government funded education institutions,  non employment of depressed class persons in higher posts in government services,  non payment for over time in factories.
·         To advocate of nationalisation of agriculture, land to be vested in government, paid maternity leave, political rights to depressed classes people,  paid over time in offices and factories at the double rate of normal wages, no religious interference  in government affairs and such other  government progressive measures.
·         To launch a political party  ( I L P) of Dalits for the Dalits and by Dalits. He won 17 seats in 1937 Provincial Elections including 3 from general constituencies. This was history of its sorts for Dalits to occupy the same political pedestal as their opponents from upper 
·         To be appointed as Member  of Viceroy’s Executive council as Labour, Employment, CPWD  Minister from among Dalits. Dr. Ambedkar wrote the whole text single-handedly, as a duty to parliament, in-spite of his bad health and busy personal social service.
·         To earn honour to be  the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee to draft Constitution for free India.
·        The First union Minister in the world history who resigned when his drafted Bill,  Viz.The  Hindu Code Bill for rights of women was not passed by parliament due to caste and sex prejudices of orthodox Upper Caste Hindus in and outsides of Parliament .
·         He was first in history of Bombay on whose death Bombay witnessed largest funeral procession , where over five lacs  Dalits embraced Buddhism  in one go.
·         He was perhaps first Minister of Indian Union, who was not allowed to address the Parliament to announce his resignation as Law Minister Of India. The Constitution he fathered was quoted to hinder to his last address as Union Law Minister.
·        As Labour Executive Member of the Viceroy Lord Wavel ‘s council( 1942 and 1946) . He was sworn as the Labor Member of the Viceroy’s Executive Council in July 7, 1942. Dr. Ambedkar did a pioneering work  . Dr. Baba saheb Ambedkar believe that caste is not merely the division of Labour but division of labourers based upon the graded inequality. He laboured hard to framed Labour benefit laws as an Executive Council Member.  Detail of the Laws framed during Dr. Ambedka’s tenure as member of the Executive Council Council.
·        Reduction in Factory Working Hours (8 hours duty) : Today the working hours in India per day is about 8 hours. We do not know that how many Indians know, that Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar was the Savior of Labors in India. He brought 8 hours duty in India and change the working time from 14 hours to 8 hours and became a light for workers in India. He brought these laws  in the 7th session of Indian Labor Conference in New Delhi, November 27, 1942.
·        Health Insurance Scheme.
·        Labor Welfare Funds
·        Provident Fund Act.
·        Factory Amendment Act.
·        Labour Disputes Act.
·        Minimum wage
·        Dearness Allowance (DA) to Workers.
·        Leave Benefit to Piece Workers.
·        Revision of Scale of Pay for Employees.
·        Coal and Mica Mines Provident Fund:
·        Creator of Damodar valley project, Hirakund project, The Sone River valley project
·        The Indian Trade Unions (Amendment) Bill:
·        Indian Statistical Law.
·        Post War Economic Planning.
·        India’s Water Policy and Electric Power Planning
·        The original source of reference for all the 13 Finance Commission reports, in a way, are based on Dr. Ambedkar’s P.hd thesis, "The Evolution of Provincial Finance in British India", written in 1923.
·        Laying basis of establishing the RBI. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) came into picture according to the guidelines laid down by Dr Ambedkar? Reserve Bank of India was conceptualised as per the guidelines, working style and outlook presented by Dr Ambedkar in front of the Hilton Young Commission. When this commission came to India under the name of “Royal Commission on Indian Currency & Finance”, each and every member of this commission were holding Dr Ambedkar’s book named “The Problem of the Rupee – Its origin and its solution.” (VELIVADA).           Despite this the Indian currency Notes Carry Mahatama Gandhi’s Portrait on them and Rabindernath Tagore as Brand Ambassador of SBI ,However GOI has issued set of 10 coins in honour of Dr.Ambedkar on his 125th birth anniversary
·        Employees State Insurance (ESI.
·        Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar framed many laws for Women Labors in RBI India :
·        Mines Maternity Benefit Act.
·        Women Labor welfare fund.
·        Women and Child, Labor Protection Act.
·        Maternity Benefit for women Labour.
·         Restoration of Ban on Employment of Women on Underground Work in Coal Mines,
·        Indian Factory Act.
·        National Employment Agency (Employment Exchange
·         Equal wages for equal work irrespective of Sex and caste of the labourer was brought in India.
·        He inspired the Modern Buddhist Movement in India.
·        Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Ambedkar was  a rare jewel and earned uncountable first in his life and after. Many surveys have been carried world over after Baba Sahib’s death which selected him as first among many world personalities.
·        Ambedkar was opposed to Article 370 of the Indian Constitution, which gives a special status to the state of Jammu and Kashmir.
·        Dr. Ambedkar the Father of Indian Constitution was voted  undisputed as the  “Greatest Indian” in a poll Spearheaded by history TV18 and CNN IBN. Nearly two crore voters took part in the voting. The results were declared on 12 August 2012.
·        Dr. Ambedkar the Messiah of Dalits and oppressed world garnered the second  highest          ( Next only to Mr. M.K. Gandhi, the Mahatma)  jury votes in a three pronged process which gave equal weight -age to the popular vote, a jury and on ground poll. The poll was conduced by A+E Networks,TV18.
·        Dr. Ambedkar  ‘s name was placed at serial number ONE out of the 100 most  pioneering students of  USA’s most prestigious Columbia University since its start 250 years ago in2004. To commemorate this event they had built a memorial inscribing  a list of 100 pioneering students of this university. This elite list contains names of Dr. Baba sahib Ambedkar , Ex-Presidents of 6 different countries, 3 American Ex-Presidents & some NOBEL prize winners.
To arrange the order of names of these very eminent pioneers , the Columbia University had formed a committee of scholars.......and this committee proposed to place name of 
Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar at the top ( first). This memorial stands tall and depicts the glory of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar & his works.
                 Dr.Ambedkar  said“ A great man is different from an eminent one in that he is ready to be the servant of the society”. He himself qualified this definition.
Words :- 3900                                 Er. H. R. Phonsa
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