Friday, May 24, 2019

Respectfully Remembering Bhagat Chhajju RamJi Gandhi of Jammu

Respectfully Remembering Bhagat Chhajju RamJi Gandhi of Jammu       Dated 21-05-2019
               ( His 30th Death Anniversary falls on 22 May,2019)                            By: - Er. H. R. Phonsa
Untitled-1Bhagat Chhajju Ram (7-3-1907—22ndt May,1989) was the first  SC Minister in J&K:- Bhagat Chhajju Ram was born at Ranbhir Singh Pura on  07-03- 1907  to Shri Bhanga Ram and Shrimati Hari Devi Ji. He was eldest of the three siblings: one brother and one sister. He was studying in8th class at Lahore when his father died.  At the time of death of  his father he had to quit his studies to take care of the his brother and sister  at the tender age of 14 years.  His parents belonged to Megh Caste , one of recognized Scheduled Castes out of 13in all in J&K. Bhagat Chhajju Ram was a tall  fair colored but thin and lean personality. He was teetotaler and lived a simple but purposeful life. Bhagat Chhajju Ram was one among the first crop of Scheduled Caste political leaders in Jammu & Kashmir who contribute a lot for the welfare of his brethren. A fearless leader always expressed his views in clear terms without fear or favour. Once, while explaining the helplessness and discriminatory treatment meted out to his people he said “In J&K we see urea in fields and Khajurias ( A superior Brahmin sub title) in offices questioning is party leaders that where other are to go”. Ever since creation of J&K State and even after Independence , Khajuria, Dogra, Mangotra,Sharmas, Dubeys  etc. Brahmns have dominated education, administrative  employment, religious affairs. They were Prohits,Pujaries to the Hindu Rulers of the state so were advisors to this state Kings. So only a courageous Dalit with spine could make such remarks against the powerful ruling class. He mostly substantiated  his speech with funny jokes, short stories  to make home his point to his audiences .
Bhagat Chhajju Ram started his career as a tailor along with Sh. Duni Chand Bhagat. Due to 1947 turmoil Bhagat Chhajju Ram migrated to Jalander ( Punjab) and established his business in sports goods. But soon he returned back to his native place and started his old job of tailoring and subsequently as a cloth merchant.  Bhagat Chhajju Ram was a committed Arya Samaji and had good rapport with the Mahajans a business community of his place. He successfully established Arya Samaj Mandir at RSPURA and at Shastri Nagar Jammu, his  old age abode.  He made good fortune out of his business.  Bhagat Chhajju Ram was an honest person and he maintained this tag throughout his life. He was called Gandhi Of J&K. One of his relations told me that once he stated supplying milk to an army unit with his other partners. Bhagat Chhajju Ram soon pulled out of this business sensing corrupt practices adopted by his partners.
 Bhagat Chhajju Ram  followed Sadguru Kabir’s teaching and he established Kabir Kalyan Kendra Jiri , Kana Chak , Jammu,  an important religious place associated with the supreme  sacrifice of a Brahmin farmer  Bawa Jitto along with his toddler daughter Kiri, for his rights. Bhagat ji wanted to display portraits of all Dalit Saints in this  Kendra. Bhagat Chhajju Ram a man of clean habits, continued with  this through out his life  including morning and evening prayers as per Arya Samaj tradition throughout his life. Regular walking, massaging his body with Sarson ( Mustrad)oil formed his daily habit. Although he had studied only 8th class but had in depth knowledge of the poverty suffering of poor, so he was taking keen interest in ways and means of mitigation of their sufferings. Bhagat Chhajju Ram had political bent of mind from his childhood and had met Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar at Lahore. Bhagat Chhajju Ram  was one among the founding fathers of Megh Mandal in early 1930. He got this organization merged with Harijan Mandal to make it broad based and  representative of all Scheduled Castesthen known as Harijans. But instrument to merge Harijan Mandal with National Conference against wishes of many others. Bhagat Chhajju Ram contested unsuccessfully for the Praja Sabha in 1938 but was made member of the J&K Constituent Assembly 1951 . Bhagat Chhajju Ram ji had met Dr. Rajinder Prasad  also along with Mahasha Nahar Singh another prominent Dalit leader.
Bhagat Chhajju Ram successfully contested elections for Legislative Assembly in 1962,1967,1983 and remained Minister  in the state cabinet for pretty long time. Besides other departments he was Minister for Social Welfare department. Bhagat Chhajju Ram was also MLC. He was Vice President (1967-1970) and Acting President ( 1970-1972) of the Indian National Congress.  For a brief period he became a member of the Communist Party when it was formed by many leaders like Ram Paira Saraf,  K.D. Sethi ,G.L. Dogra and others. But soon he returned to National Conference. Bhagat Chhajju Ram had close rapport with many National and State leaders.
I had a personal acquaintances with Bhagat Ji from 1960 and he was instrument in getting me admission in the Regional Engineering College ( Now NIT) Srinagar in 1961 from where I passed out as a first Scheduled Caste Engineer in the J&K State in 1966.  Till then no body from all Dalit castes put to gather had privilege to qualify as Engineer.  Bhagat Ji also snatched for me first appointment by giving a tough duel with then PWD Minister, RS Jamwal  in the presence of CM, Late G.M. Sadiq. Bhaggat  Ji  was ever ready to help all poor and deprived sections of society more so  Scheduled Castes. Our leaders of that time namely, Bhagat Chhajju Ram,  Babu Parmanand,  Choudhary Guran Ditta Mal, Jagat Ram Aryan, Babu Milkhi Ram, Mahasha Nahar Singh and others had dedicated their lives in the welfare of the Dalit masses. They had their personal difference at times but for common cause they were one.  The only common  matter they did not co-operate,  as required was lending helping hand to Amar Shaheed Bhagat Amar nath ji who undertook fast unto death for the cause of Scheduled castes  Frankly speaking I also proposed Bhagat Amarnath ji to delay his decision as our samaj was not prepared for such a drastic step.But he was adamant to go ahead with his plans and the unfortunately  we lost him. With their active fight of our leaders of the times 40 Housing plot were got reserved/allotted to Scheduled caste persons in the Shastri Nagar Jammu colony by the Housing department. Now we have substantial perence of our people there.  This right of scheduled caste had been criminally ignored while developing Gandhi Nagar colony. With these leaders in the Medical and Engineering college Srinagar education the Scheduled caste students were granted with both facilities of Scholarship and education Loan against only one facility in the initial years. Some people do disservice  to him by restricting him to a particular caste  when he worked for all toiling humanity. This needs to be stopped forthwith.
       This son of the soil passed away at his home in Shastri Nagar on 22nd May, 1989 at an age of 82 years. His services to the downtrodden masses shall be long remembered with reverence. Let us salute his memories and his services rendered to poor, neglected, illiterates, ill fed of our society.
  Compiled by :-
Email:- hrphonsa           Mob:-09419134060

Note:-Any body who intends to get added more information in this article is welcome send it to me on my mail address, but facts must be real duly substantiated with facts. These facts will be added with their names  on revision of this article if a need so arises. Any body having Bhagat Ji’s clear/ good portrait may please send me a copy of the same to get it displayed in an important social building house.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019


      ( To- day 21 St May,2019 is his 107th birthday, Salute him)
The Mang or Matang (Minimadig in Gujarat and Rajasthan) is an untouchable caste in the Indian caste system Mangs were associated with low-status or ritually impure professions such as village musicians, cattle castrators, leather curers, midwives, hangmen, undertakers, and criminals. In the modern day they are listed as a Scheduled Caste, a designation which has replaced the former term Untouchable.Their origins lie in the Narmada Valley of India. They were part of Shiva ji's army and also had a large
presence in the East India company army. But after 1857 Indian Sepoy Rebellion (First war Of Indian Independence) Mangs were formerly classified as a criminal tribe under the Criminal Tribes Acts of the British Raj. Their recruitment in the marital services was also stopped by Lord Kitchener in early 1890.
Shri Ramachandra Khandale a Mang by Caste was born on 21 May 19I3 at village Kurkumbh, of Daund taluka in Pune district. Daund taluka comprises 165 villages. Bhima, Mula and Mutha are the three rivers in Daund.His father was Shri Genuji Khandale. Shri Ramachandra Khandale was admitted in Saints High school at Dound, an English medium school where he could study only upto the fourth standard.He married Lalubai and the couple had a daughter .His wife expired in 1958 when he was out for social work.
Shri R.G.Khandale was a dedicated worshipper or Potraj (Pujari) of a Goddess. Shri Baba Wagahmare from Dound an Ambedkarite worker was also belonging to Mang community. Shri Baba Wagahmare convinced Shri Khandale to stop the futile worship of the Hindu diety. Shri Wagahmare also asked him to shave off his hair and work for the upliftment of his community. Shri R.G.khandale got his hair cut in 1930 .Shri R.G. khandale happened to see the jalsa( Big politically motivated gathering) staged by Ramachandra Hari Bansode at Indapur city in Pune district. As the jalsa was based on social problems and prevailing deplorable conditions of Untouchables, it moved his inner conscious. Hereafter Shri R .G. Khandale was a changed person. He decided to strive to uplift the untouchables under the leadership of Dr. Ambedkar.
To carry on with his job of educating his Untouchable communities Shri R.G .Khandale foundedAll India Matang Sewa Samaj in1932. His Matang Samaj started rallying behind him. Thereafter he organized Bombay provincial Matang Parishador Conference in 1934 at Dound. Shri P N Rajbhoj (1906-1986)presided over the Conference. It was resolved in the conference to follow the policies and programs initiated by Dr. Ambedkar.All India Matang Sewa Samaj invited Dr. Ambedkar to Dound in 1936 to guide and advise the Dalits including Matangs in their political struggle. The Matang Parishad was active up to 1944.Being a true follower of Babasaheb Ambedkar Shri R.G. khandale believed that a separate electorate was necessary for the Dalits to ensure their real representation in the Legislatures. There was a collective view among Dalit leaders that with the passage of time their own Dalit political representatives in political parties shall ignore their Dalit voters if some mechanism as proposed in the separate electorate was not in place. This has proven correct in the present day politics of political parties. Now political leaders say more particularly Dalit leaders that Dalits have not voted for him or her as in the opposition too Dalits were contesting on the reserved seats. So the Dalits despite voting in large numbers do not get the desired credit of supporting parties.
Shri R.G. khandale worked to unite the Mahar, Chamar and Mang communities among the Scheduled Castes in Maharashtra. He stressed Dalits to avoid eating carcass and worshiping false deities. Earlier he himself was aPotraj to a goddess. But now he was guiding his Depressed Classes brothers to avoid such futile traditions. He was refuting the tradition of dedicating people to the goddess as Potraj, Devdasi and Murali .He sincerely though that Maharaki and Mangaki, the two hereditary services performed by Mang were in- dignifying the society. These services were traditionally performed by the Mahars and Mangs for baluta crumbs (Baluta is involuntary servitude because of which the hereditary servants were getting crumbs of bread as a reward).
Shri R.G. Khandale was convinced that the Depressed Classes needed political empowerment. When Dr. Ambedkar formed the Independent Labour Party (ILP) on 15th August 1936 Shri Khandale joined it. In 1939, he was also elected to the District Local Board, Pune. The IPL did a commendable job of winning
substantial (14)seats in the Provincial Assembly elections based on the separate electorates' in primary election to the Scheduled Castes. In 1945 all SCF candidates won in UP when congress won only 4 urban seats of Lucknow, Agra, Allahabad and Kanpur. But in general elections in 1946 all upper caste Hindus voted enblock in favour of Dalit nominated Congress candidates and SFC candidates lost except at two places. Stiff opposition to the Poona Pact started from here onwards for denying Dalits the provisions of separate electorates granted under Communal Award. Shri Khandale also joined the Scheduled Castes Federation (SCF) in 1942 and the Republican Party (RPI) of India in 1957. In 1952, General Election he successfully contested on SCF seat from Pune-Haveli Constituency. He was elected as Joint Secretary of the Maharashtra RPI unit in 1960. He was unsuccessful when in 1972 he contested in the General Elections from Daund Assembly seat. Shri R.G.Khandale actively participated in all the programmes of ILP; SCF and RPI.
Shri R.G. Khandale was sent to assist the leaders in Marathwada in organizing the satyagraha of landless peoples in 1953.Again he was deputed for similar purposes in1956 to Kalamba in Kolhapur. He was imprisoned at Aurangabad for one and a half month in 1953 and for 15 days in 1956 for having participated in the Satyagraha of landless persons.
Shri R.G. Khandale was also involved in the satyagrah held at Rahuri ( Ahmednagar district) in 1959 and Dound in 1964-65.. He was brain behind the founding of the Nav Jeevan Vidyarthi Vasatigrih (hostel) at Dound in 1959 for the Scheduled Caste boys. He kept himself actively engaged in running the affairs of this hostel till his last days
When Dr. Ambedkar along with his lakhs of followers embraced Buddhism onVijayadashmi day, 14 October 1956 at Nagpur, Shri R.G. Khandale too got converted to Buddhism. There after Shri R.G. Khandale engaged himself in propagating
the Buddhism among the Scheduled Castes. In recognition of his dedicated services to society and the Ambedkarite movement, the RPI Pune unit honored him on 21 May 1987 under the President ship of Smt J. Ishwari (1920-1991), the president of one of RPI wings. Shri Khandale was presented with a purse for rupees. 15, 051.00


Rai Bahadur Rao Narayan Meghaji Lokhande (1848–1897)

     History of getting Sunday holiday .                    
   Rai Bahadur Rao Narayan Meghaji Lokhande  (1848–1897)       
                          ( A Dalit Hero who struggled hard to get sanctioned Sunday as public Holiday)
Nothing on this earth has ever been obtained without struggle particularly when it is for a larger interests of a community. Baba Sahib Dr. Ambedkar said “ All things have a bill of costs attached to it, you cannot get it without paying the price”. However very well meaning persons of vision have struggled for matters of common causes. One among such persons who showed  more concern for suffering millions laborers without caring for his personnel comforts was Narayan Meghaji Lokhande.  The Indian employees then had to work  all seven  week days without getting any beak or rest time time. For Christians Sunday is a  day of religious observance and abstinence from work. The Jews observed from Friday evening to Saturday evening as a prayer and rest day . Christians attend Church services to Pray in Church on every Sunday. So, Sunday is holiday in Christianity terming it as God’s day , the sign of a new creation, beyond the week Jesus. Christ on crucification on a cross.  rested in the grave on the Sabbath and rose the following day, beyond the end of the week. So for Christians the day following the Sabbath became known as “the Lord’s day” which was Sunday.
 Rao Bahadur Narayan Meghaji Lokhande (1848–1897) struggled hard to get one day weekly off with full pay perks to Indian workers  . He was Dalit being born in Fulmali or florist,a Hindu untouchable  caste.  Florists  grow flowers besides performing other agriculture based jobs.   He being contemporary and prominent colleague of   another social and education Revolutionary  Mahatma Jyotirao Phuley (11th April 1827 to 28th Nov.1890) of Poona(now Pune). Both belonged to mali caste now classified as Other Backward Caste. Both worked in unison in Satya Sodak Samaj movement and organized  labour to fight for their rights.
Meghaji Lokhande was convinced that labour needs weekly at least a day’s rest .This way they can look after their  family affairs for which they  toil hard.So he approached the British government of India in 1881 with a written request  to give weekly  a day’s off  from work to workers. But the government did not agree with his suggestion and the Indian workers continued  to work seven days a week without any break. However in UK Sunday officially had became an off day since 1843.  When the British Indian Government refused to accede to his  suggestions for Sunday as holiday for Indian workers too, he started a campaign for it. His struggle gained strength with every passing day. This campaign continued long, for eight years. When Narayan Megaji Lokhanday’s struggle for the cause of toiling Indian workers gained strong momentum the British Government declared Sunday as holiday in 1889. The success of the movement launched and guided by Shri Rao Narayana M. Lokhanday was not only a big relief to the labourers but an encouragement for Indian to launch more such movements for mass benefits. Ever since protests, agitations, non cooperative movements became an tool in Indian public hands to get their human rights enforced from the British rulers.           
 Meghaji Lokhande  was a pioneer of the labour movement in India and Mahatama Phuley utilizing his wife’s services opened 18 schools in and around Poona, many for girls. Education to girls and untouchables was  banned in Hindu shastras, particularly Manusmirity.  To organize mill workers Meghaji Lokhande  founded the Bombay Mill Hands Association  
( BMHA).He was its first President too. Mahatama Jyotirao Phuley also addressed the meetings of the textile workers in Bombay. It is significant that before Lokhande , Jyotirao and his  another colleagues Bhalekar had  tried to organize the peasants and the workers, hardly anybody else or any organization had made any such attempt to redress worker’s  grievances.
 Lokhandaye  is remembered not only for ameliorating the working conditions of textile mill-hands in the 19th century but also for his courageous initiatives on caste and communal issues. He was founding father of  “Mumbai Kamgar Sangh”. He was appointed associate member of the Bombay Factory Commission in 1890. Meghaji Lokhande is acclaimed as the Father of the Trade Union Movement in India so  was awarded title of “ Rai Bahadur”  by the British Government for his exemplary work of labour welfare.
Some of the rights mill workers got because of  Rai Bahadur Rao Narayan Meghaji Lokhande’s  labourious efforts  were:
 Mill workers got a weekly holiday on Sunday.
In the afternoon, workers should be entitled to half-hour recess.
The mill should have fixed working hours  and should start working from 6:30 in the morning and close by sunset.
He demanded that the salaries of the workers should be given by the 15th of every month.
 The Deenbandhu  a Marathi-language newspaper  was founded by Jyotirao Phule and K. R. Bhalekar in 1877. It was the first newspaper in India published from Bombay ( Now Mumbai) to cater explicitly for the labouring people.  It served as an outlet for Phule's Satyashodhak Samaj too. Nara yan Meghaji Lokhande, took over the management of Deenbandhu published from Bombay. He had already been writing for it from 1880 and was selling 1650 copies per week in 1884, thus making it the second-highest circulation Marathi or Anglo-Marathi newspaper in Bombay Presidency, after Kesari another Marathi paper founded in 1881 by Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak.
While Lokhande published the Deenbandhu from BombayVithhal Marutrao Nawle, an admirer of Phule, bought the rights to publish an edition in Pune. He imported a printing press from Ohio that continued to produce the newspaper until it ceased publication in the 1970s. (Wikipedia)
 The Government of India issued a postage stamp with his photograph in 2005. He was the force behind forcing the British Crown to order weekly paid  Public Holiday on  Sunday for workers in India
Let us all salute the sweet memory of the Dalit Hero Rai Bahadur Rao Narayan Meghaji Lokhande becaue of whom Indian Labourers and workers including employees are enjoying weekly Sunday as paid Holiday.

Er.H.R.Phonsa Jammu             Mobile:-+919419134060

(Ref:-By Coursty of Wikipedia
 Economic and Political Weekly. 32 (7): 327–329. JSTOR 4405089 from)

Thursday, March 21, 2019

Personalities who influenced Dr.B.R. Ambedkar the most

Personalities who influenced Dr.B.R. Ambedkar the most
( Paying Revered Tributes on 128thBirthday of Dr.Ambedkar falling on 14th April,2019 )
The life storey of Bharat Ratana Baba Saheb  Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar   is a saga of great struggles and achievements. Dr Ambedkar used to compare himself with Moses, who ( Moses) wanted to relieve the Israeli’s from forced labour and their unending servitude so led his peoples to Palestine. Dr Ambedkar led his peoples to break the yoke of religious, political social and economic barriers imposed by Hindu un-natural laws framed against his peoples called Shudhars,  Ati Shudras untouchables, Namashudras etc. Dr Ambedkar catalogued, expanded and interpreted the code of laws of his country. He was opposed to Mahatma Gandhi in many ways, still keeping in view the   Dr. Ambedkar’s contributions for the Indian Nation, Mahatma Gandhi described him as a man who has carved out  in society a unique position for himself and he is not a man to allow himself  to be forgotten. Perhaps he was born to cut the age old caste shackles of his peoples, which had reduced their life to even below of those of animals.
 Life Sketch :-
Bharat  Ratana Baba Saheb  Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar  was born on 14 th April 1891 at Mhow to  revered  Subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal and Mata Bhimabai in  Mahar Community. It is said that Mahars were the rulers of Marashtra (Mahar + Rashtra ) but because of  Hindu agony  and caste based  values, they were reduced to the level of Untouchables, Sudras, Ati sudra, whose only shadow was considered enough to pollute an upper caste Hindu. He personally faced worst type of caste hate Ambedkar worked over 18 hours a day and at times sky was his roof and the earth his floor,. Bhimrao was married to Ramabai at the tender age of 17 years when his spouse was only of 9 years.  Mata Ramabai stood like a rock by her Sahib  till her death on May 27,  1935. Due to handwork of duo father and son  Bhimrao earned world’s Highest academic  Degrees of ( London ); PhD and LL.D  (Columbia ); M.A ; D. Lit ( Osmania )  Bar –at- Law (London ) . Dr Ambedkar knew ten languages Marathi (mother tongue), Hindi, English, Gujarati, Pali, Sanskrit, Bengali, Persian, French and German. He could speak fluently seven languages. According to his autobiography ‘Waiting for a Visa'. Ambedkar wrote  that he wrote Pali  to English Dictionary( Quora).  Dr Ambedkar also served  on highly prestigious positions  as Labour member of Viceroy’s Executive Council (1942-46 ) ; First Law Minister Of Independent India and earned the distinction of selection as Chairman Of the Constitution Drafting  Committee to draft Constitution for free India and is so called “ father Of Indian constitution.” Some called him Mother of Indian Constitution as well. He proved an emancipator for Dalits, a torch bearer for the liberation of slaves’ world over and an insurmountable rock for his opponents. He contributed for the freedom of India, but more for the Dalits, who were slaves to the slaves of British India.  He was highly praised by those who understood his odious cause for the liberation of his Dalit community persons, but also abused as traitor by those who never appreciated his mission of life and wanted to maintain status-quo in social, political, educational, economic and religious spheres even after independence. He was for change and offer said” Consistency is a virtue of an ass”
       It is difficult to count the persons who influenced the life of a life long student. Baba Sahib owned one of world’s biggest personnel libraries having nearly 50,000 books. As Baba Sahib was an author of large number of Books, essays and had  attended many world class Universities, researched in many museums, Libraries, remained in association of  many learned teachers ,politicians, religious leaders so it is difficult to count or have details of all those personalities who influenced the his life. A visit to him was a visit to to a walking museum so said one of his biographer.  It was therefore difficult to know about all those  great personalities who influenced his life .An attempt here has been made to find out some personalities who  directly or indirectly  who influenced shaping of life of  Bharat Ratna Baba Sahib Dr. B. R. Ambedkar’s life and personality.
         Some of the Personalities who influenced Dr. Ambedkar’s life the most:-
A)      Subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal (1849-1916AD): - Honesty, Hard working, dedication, urge to get higher education ,  honesty and boldness in his conduct and to work for elevation of his fellow untouchables was learned by Ambedkar from his father subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal.
B)       Guru Ravidas( 1398-1540 AD):- Dr. Ambedkar held in high esteems Shri Guru Ravidas Ji. Perhaps the rationale of equality, brotherhood, Republic democracy, socialist, individual dignity is borrowed from the philosophy of Shri Guru Ravidas.
C)          Kabir (1440-1518 AD) :- Dr. Ambedkar’s family belonged to the devotional path shown by  Sadguru Kabir ji a great  Dalit Saint  Devotional songs of Kabir Ji were daily sung with love by the family, which effected the tender mind set of child Bhimrao. Kabir Ji’s verses including “Jat Pat Pushey Na koye, Har Ko Bhaje so Har Ka hoi” i.e Caste does not decide your fate, but your devotion to Lord is supreme. Kabir Ji was taken as Ambedkar’s Second Guru, first being Budha.
D)      Budha( 563-480  BCA):- The Budha philosophy influnced Ambedkar the most. He like Budha revolted against Vedas, Upnishadas, un-natural Brahminical division of the humans.  He studied Bhudha deepely, so like Budha he always adopted just ways of his conduct negating Brahminical  ways of salvation as religious rites, rituals, religious ceremonies,and sacrifices . He was firm believer like Budha that every individual  was the maker or spoiler of one’s destiny. Budha never proclaimed himself as God, Avtar or His incarnation, so influenced the inner mind of Dr. Ambedkar. When he got convinced that Hinduism was immune to reform. He brought back Buddha to India by embracing Buddhism on 14 th   October 1956 along with over three Lacs of men and women. Dr. Ambedkar lived for 22 days after conversion to Buddhism and during this small period over Five Lacs Dalits got converted to Buddhism. Dr. Ambedkar in his last days wrote a Master Book of 599 pages on Buddhism “Buddha and His Dhamma”
E)          Jyotiba Phule(1827-1890 AD):- Jyotiba Phule was the greatest Shudra of modern India, who made Hindu Untouchables conscious of their slavery to the Upper  Caste Hindus. He gave the gospel that in India Social democracy was more vital than independence from foreign rule. Phule started 18 school in Poona for girls against stanch opposition from the caste Hindus as education for women was sin in  Hindu Manu Laws.  He is considered as political Guru Of Dr. Ambedkar and both were convinced that all men are equal  by birth so need to be provided equal opportunities for progress in all spheres. Both fought through out their lives to break social and economical barriers erected to segregate men on their castes at birth.
F)       Booker T. Washington( 1856-1915): - During Dr. Ambedkar’s American stay, he was influenced by the Constitution of  U.S.A. and its fourteenth Amendment  declaring freedom to Negroes. He was also influenced most by the life of Booker T. Washington a great revolutionary, educator reformer Negro leader, who founder and remained  President of Tuskegee Institute, which disseminated among Negroes the gospel of education of the head, heart and hand and thus broke the  barriers of bondage through which Negroes were crushed for ages physically, educationally, mentally , socially and spiritually. Booker T. Washington died in 1915 when Dr. Ambedkar was in America and passed his M.A. degree. Dr Ambedkar learnt from the life story of Booker T. Washington the spirit of fight for the cause of freedom of his brethren untouchables, who were treated even worse than Negroes, in Indian society.
G)      John Dewey( 1859-1952): - John Dewey was his mentor at Columbia University, whose philosophy helped shape Dr. Ambedkar towards a critical analysis of the hard problems facing the society. He advocated dynamic and pragmatic approach to drive the humanity out of the troubles it was confronted with. Both criticized the old philosophers, who advocated idealism and other obsolete things. John Dewey methods of inquiry had influenced Ambedkar to deal with hard and painful situations. Both were practical political scientists, so paid pointed attention to practical rather than mere academic politics. Ambedkar learnt from Dewey’s emphasis on education as means to change the world and not only to understand it. Both believed that Education should be capable of creating human values having universal application. Both established them selves on everyday life of an average man in their respective country. Dr. Ambedkar  association with John Dewey provided the basis for a systematic  study and analysis of problems relating to politics, economics, society religion and history . Ambedkar concluded that a society is equally if not more, aggressive and tyrannical than the Government is based on deep study of these subjects.
H)         J.S. Mill ( 1806-1873): - Dr. Ambedkar was greatly influenced from the writing of Mill, a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of classical liberalism, he contributed widely to social theorypolitical theory, and political economy He had advocated freedom of thought, freedom of speech and freedom of action. Mill’s philosophy molded the political philosophy of Ambedkar.
I)           Justice Ranade ( 1842-1901): - Life and work storey of Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, father of Indian Socio- political revolution casted a great influence on Dr Ambedkar. Dr Ambedkar was called upon to deliver 101 birth anniversary address of Justice Ranade which fell on 18th January1940. Dr Ambedkar learnt about Ranade, when he retrieved from the old papers of his father, a petition drafted by Justice Ranade against banning recruitment of Mahars into Indian Army in 1892. Philosophy of Justice Ranade was summed up Dr. Ambedkar himself as
A) We should not hold ideals purely imaginary.
B) In politics sentiments and temperaments of the people are more important than intellect and theory.
 C) In political negotiations the rule should be what is possible, that does not mean that we should be content with what is offered.
 Why Ambedkar agreed with the terms of Poona Pact of 1932 with Mahatma Gandhi and other Caste Hindus by sacrificing the benefits of the Communal Award can be accessed from his above said political philosophy.
I)     Karl  Marx (1818-1883AD):-  Dr. Ambedkar was also immensely  influenced by Karl Marx’s theory of class struggle as he was aware of the    merciless exploitation of the poor all over the world. But in India poor were exploited both by rich and Higher Caste Hindus alike. While explaining difference between Class and Caste Dr Ambedkar observed    “Downtrodden peoples of India are first to be fired and last to be hired”. Dr Ambedkar was of the firm view of uniting of the exploited peoples and make them realize being slaves, so they shall revolt against it. But Dr Ambedkar differed with Marx on the point that suffering was not only from the economic factors but from social factors as well. Ambedkar had experienced religious tyranny more severe and organized than state tyranny and poverty ridden upper caste Hindus were equally or even more cruel to wards poor untouchables
Crusader of Dalit Education:-Ambedkar was convinced that education besides being means of live hood was a powerful weapon to liberate the Dalits from ignorance and to strengthen their fight against injustice and humiliation.   He considered education as prequalification for any organization and movement of Dalits. So he gave his Golden  slogan to Dalits “Educate , Agitate and unite”  To prepare his peoples to safe guard their Human Rights through spread of  his message more effectively he  started Journals namely  Mook Nayak( Leader of the Dumb), Bahiskrit Bharat( Excluded India), Samta ( Equality) Janta (Peoples) . He picked up lessons from the strong note  of Bernard Shaw ,” Honest education is dangerous to tyranny and privilege; the system like Capitalist system kept in vogue the popular ignorance, Churches which depend upon it for priestly authority, privileged classes and ambiguous conquerors and dictators, who have to instill royalty and  romantic hero worship, all use ignorance and education as underpinning for general faith in themselves as rulers” So  to negate the ill effects of illiteracy of his peoples and to equip them with quality  education he opened Mallind Mahavidhalaya Aurangabad( Maharasthra,  );Sidharath College Of Commerce And Economics Bombay; and Siddhartha Law College Bombay. Ambedkar built his house “Raj Girah” in Bombay to house a library. 
 Gadge Ji Maharaj (1876-1956) :- Gadge Baba’s  the father of  Indian cleanliness Drive(Swachata Abhiyan) had a great influence on the life of Dr. Ambedkar. Gadge Ji Maharaj advised Dr. Ambedkar to leave Hindu religion as it was immune to reform, but at the same time not to join Christianity or Islam. Gadge Baba  dedicated Sant Chokhamela Dharmashala, Pandharpur to Dr Ambedkar for his love for Dr Ambedkar. This Dharmshalla ( Night Sheltter) was constructed Baba Gadge Ji from the  money he eaned from his work of cleaning the villages where ever he  went to conduct Satsangs.
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 The Author  :-Er.H.R.Phonsa can be contacted on