Sunday, November 27, 2016

The Roll of Dalit intellectuals in the Social and Economic Development

The Roll of Dalit intellectuals in the Social and Economic Development  
                                                ( Easy was written for reading at Jallander in  intellectual persons meet   on Dated 4-1-2013)

Ladies and gentlemen,
                             Jai Bhim, Jai Gurudev, Jai Bharat. 
At the out set let me express my heartfelt gratitude’s to the organizers of this important meet to day. It is an important occasion when all have gathered here to ponder over the problems blocking the roadway to progress of the Dalit Samaj and to find ways and means to over come man made hurdles in achieving our goals. The topic chosen it self explains the intensions, concerns and deep sense of responsibility of the educated Dalit lot to find swiftly the way out. I am greatly indebted for the efforts of Mr. J.RChouhan, who is solely responsible for my visit to your city and providing me the opportunity to meet you all. He won my heart in his very first meeting when we both gathered in DD studio Jammu to deliver a joint talk  on  6th Dec.2012 on the life and mission of Bharat Ratana Baba Sahib Dr B.R. Ambedkar. I thank Mr. Chouhan from the core of my heart; he has made arrangements of my transport to your meet as well.
   To day’s topic for discussion as you all know is “The roll of intellectuals for Social and Economic Development”.  So to begin with first I must define intellect and intellectuals so as their wordly meaning are made explicitly clear.
 As per the English dictionary “Intellect” is defined as the power or faculty of mind by which one knows or understands as distinguished from that by which one feels and that by which one wills, the under standing , the faculty of thinking ,reasoning, understanding and acquiring knowledge. In common terms it is Budhi, Budhimata and Akal.  Where as an Intellectual is an individual who engages himself or her self in intellect pursuit, to pursue an effort to overtake or capture. In the common terms it is known as Bhudhiman, Akalmand, Budhijivi, Mansik, and Boddicwadi.
        Normally an educated person has better intellect development chances but many with out university and college degrees has done wonders in the world. Every educated person cannot be  an intellectual, he or she may or may not be an intellectual. Where as a little percentage of individuals with out any formal   education have proved highly intellectuals doing wonders in spiritual, social, cultural, art, craft, skilled jobs and economic spheres. A few such highly intellectuals like Guru Ravidas(1414-1532) Sadguru Kabir Sahib(1398-1518),Nam Dev(1270-1350),Guru Nanak(1469-1539) and his successors in line of gurugadi , Sant Chokhamela, Sant  Savitamali  Sant  Sain, Gora, Sadna, Dhanna,Sheed Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Mata Savitribai Phuley,Mata Ramabai Ambedkar, Jesus Christ, Hazrat Mohd, and many more did wonders by their philosophies, theories and sermons and heroic pursuits.
 But even then education is an important ingredient to sharpen intellect and help it grow The education in turn is dependent on economic conditions of the person. Education is said to the Third Eye of an individual with out which real progress in modern times is not possible.
 Since the Brahminical dharma or Chaturvarnadharma is rooted on the un-natural division of its members. The Brahmins also called Bhudevas(gods on the earth) assumed dominating position in this division. They devised different methods to keep all other castes under their command by assigning them inferior positions. Chaturvarnadharma Division into Priests (Brahmins), Rulers and warriors (Khaitrays), Commoners (Vaishyas) and  Servants or slaves (Shudras,Asuras ) was proclaimed to be done as per the will of God, the universe creator.  The first three were also called twice born. The different duties so assigned were attributed as Godly act.  The Shudras or slaves were assigned the lowest and dirtiest jobs. Service to the other three castes as slaves duly purchased with out paying any price .The rules made in pre historic times for then Shudras are still strictly applicable to present day Shudras ,Ati Shudras. These rules received legal sanctions as per Brahminical laws declaring them to be as per the express will God.
To keep Shudras permanently under Brahmins authority all their means of progress were completely choked by their masters.  The right of education, economic pursuits, social justice were denied to shudras  as proclaimed in Dharam Shasta’s. The Manusmriti or Manaavdharmasastra supposed to be written  first BCE( Before common era) was said to  be as per  godly legal authority. It assigned Shudras (chapter 1:91) duty (service) to other three superior castes as their Dharma.
Manusmriti (chapter 1:101) laid down  the Priest eats, wears, and gives what is his own,  all others live through the priest’s mercy, making clear that every thing on earth belongs to Brahmins.  They were declared Bhudevas( Gods on earth)
Manusmriti (chapter 10:96) If a man of the lower caste makes money by indulging in superior caste duties, the king  should confiscate his wealth and immediately banish him. This way all efforts of a shudra to earn money were blocked permanently.
Manusmriti (chapter 8:267) corporal or death penalty was devised for a shudras for shouting at a ruler, where as superior  caste persons were  to be let  off only after paying a monetary fine with minimum fine amount for the priests.
The basics of economic growth of the Shudras was blocked through Manusmriti (chapter 10:129) which laid that a shudras shall not own any wealth even if he  has the ability to do so ,  for a wealthy servant  shall annoy a priest or Brahmin .
Manusmriti (chapter 8:416) proclaims that a wife, a son, a slave (Shudra) owns no  property, whatever they have belongs to the man to whom they belong.
 Still more stringent law made legalized .Manusmriti (chapter 8:417)says A Brahmin can take over property of a shudras since nothing belongs to him. To further degrade the position of the Shudras the Bhagwat Geeta another religiously high placed  scripture  lays in( Chapter 9:32) a woman ,a Vaishya and a shudras are born out of curse or their past bad deeds.
Ramacaritamanasa ( Hindi-Geeta Press) writes
                       Listen o’ Gandharava to what I tell you. I cannot tolerate an enemy of Brahmins”      Page 737
                      He who without guile in thought, word and deed does service to the Brahmins (the very fond Gods on Earth) wins over Brahma, Siva, Myself(Sri ram) and all other Divinities.                                           Page 737                                
A drum, a rustic, a sudra, a beast and a woman all these require beating  as their right.             Page 855
 One can quote hundreds of such partial   Brahminical laws sanctioning stringent punishments for shudras and immunity to Brahmins for similar acts.
                If a shudra listens to a religious  scripture,his tongue be cut and boiling metal be put in hear ears.
When  Baba Sahib Dr B.R. Ambedkar was asked to briefly describe the contents of Hindu scriptures. He is said to have replied that these books contain primarily two things. One stories of Raja Maharajas, Kings and warriors and secondly abuses to we poor shudras. Dr Ambedkar considering Manusmriti a curse for Dalits, so burnt it in full public view in 1927.
 My narrations so far are to show how systematically the basic cannons of progress were blocked for shudras our for-fathers for centuries.
         Now I shall briefly try to explain how the things changed so that we know the future guide lines for social and economic development of our people.
       With the coming of the Christian missionaries from end of 16th century it  made dramatic change in the life prospects of Dalits. Although they came with the motto of spreading their religious faith by converting caste Hindus. They also started Anglo Vernacular Schools.  Charter Act 1813 permitted the missionaries to work in the Indian territories of the East India Company with a view to educate the masses. Madras Presidency compiled data between 1823-25 there were 12498 schools with 1,88, 000 students with complete control of Brahmins ( 60to75%) others from khatriyas and Vaishya castes. But teachers wee all Brahmins. The school books carried reading materials from Vedas,  Puranas , Smrities and Epics
       In 1837, English was made the language of the administration and in 1844 lower administrative post were thrown open to the Indian. The missionaries opened many schools in rural areas also  with permission to all to take admission in these schools. The Christian missionaries found that caste system in India was the biggest block in spread of education and their faith. So they started giving stress in spreading education and speeding the education reforms.
This gave impetus for Hindu religious reformists also to start schools with Dalit student intake.  Some government aided schools for the deprived sections of Hindus were also established. But the main hurdle was due to the facts that all teachers were Brahmins and their religious orthodoxy prevented them to teach untouchable students. The religious hard liner parents and students were not ready to accommodate untouchable students in the schools. In 1931 when government decided to admit Dalit students in all government  aided schools the caste Hindus withdrew their wards from these aided schools. Even the Congress leaders with Hindu Religious hard lining attitudes supported Caste Hindu. So despite all educational efforts in Madras Presidency the percentage of Dalit literacy beyond primary stage remained less than 1% from 1901 to 1931. In 1905  only Brahmins were teachers who were committed to orthodox behavior .When Government started aided schools for Dalits, school inspectors tried to escape entering  Since all teachers Dalit Basti schools for taking examinations for fear of getting polluted. It is on record that a Brahmin inspector called Dalit students out side the Basti territory and checked note books fron a height of over ten feet. But now to seek votes all non Dalit leaders not only come to Dalit houses but even take tea or meals with them.( Much more such  information can be seen in the book
  With the coming of Christian missionaries and opening schools for all castes, Dalits got most benefited. School education produced great Dalit Social visionaries like Mahatama Jyotiba Phuley(1827-1890)and Baba Sahib Bhimrao Ambedkar(1891-1956) and many more, who took to the Dalit empowerment programmers in a big way. The education widened their vision and in turn vision of their followers. Many struggles were launched and won on the social front. With the adoption of  Dr B.R. Ambedkar written Constitution for free India equality of opportunity with equal civil  Rights  along with their with safeguards mechanism  for the deprived sections of the society. Equality before law was made fundamental right and adult franchise opened flood gates of denied opportunities for education and economic developments. The results are apparent.( Much more such  information can be seen in the book “Writing Dalit History and other essays by Yagati Chinna Rao ,Kanishaka Publishing, Distributors ,Ansari Road Darya Ganj  N.Delhi-2)
    As regards the poor economic conditions of the untouchables, although tons of currency, gold, silver and precious stones are stored in the temple strong safes, but not even a single penny was available for the Dalit cause. When in 1020 Mohamed Gazni plundered the Somnath temple in Gujrat a chain of gold weighing 200 mounds ( One maund is  equivalent to 82.286 pounds or 40 seers or 30.70 kilograms) with a bell was found hung in a corner. He took away 98,300 some say 88,000 misquals ( Bars) of gold out of idols alone 200 silver idols so heavy that they could not be weighed with out breaking them.   Not even  one hundredth of wealth  he got from Somnath temple was possessed by any Indian king. On invading Nagarkot temple the invader was paid by Brahmins 700,000gold dinars,700 maunds of  gold and silver vessels, 200 maunds of pure gold, and 2000maunds of unpurified silver besides 20 mounds of various jewels, as fine. The  present treasuries of the religious institutions and worship place carry also similar treasuries. Recently treasures worth $20 billion were found in Padmanabhaswamy temple, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Six vaults piled with gold and jewels have been discovered in the temple that belonged to Travancore royalty. There were sacks of diamonds and tonnes of gold coins and jewellery that were lying untouched for hundreds of years. This makes the temple the richest in India.  The Tirupati temple, this is the second richest pilgrim located at Andhra Pradesh. More than 60,000 devotees visit this temple every day and treasures of more than Rs 650 crore is stored in the temple. This brings this temple under the list of richest temples of India. The Shirdi temple of  Saibaba is the third richest in India.   millions of devotees visit it everyday. The temple has gold and silver jewellery worth approximately Rs 32 crore and silver coins worth more than Rs 6 lakh. The temple gets donations worth Rs 350 crore every year. Similar riches are held in other Hindu temples with lacs of  priests  remain in attendance to deities  of the temples.( for more details see “History of Hindu Imperialism by  Swami Dhanma Theeratha New edition from the Dalit Book Trust Essel Mansion,Arya Samaj Road N Delhi-5) .
It is due to sacrifices, suffering and struggles by our illiterate visionary fore fathers and intellectuals, we are now counted as humans with access to all human rights under the sun. But the loosing upper castes under command of Brahmins are more united than the receiving Dalits. Dalits are trying to prove much more strict religious followers than the original one. This was the same religion which kept blocked all our progress for centuries and made us slaves.
 So far we have deliberated upon historical factors. Let us now ponder over present day scenarios.
When Dr Ambedkar cursed his literate followers, he was more than hundred percent correct. But he had not said any word against illiterates and intellectuals. He knew that his people one day shall get transformed from illiterates to literates and literates into intellectuals. Then they shall rise above their personnel prejudices and gains taking collective community wellbeing more important than individual progress.    Our peoples started treading on the progressive ladder, may be a small minority in mid Twentieth century .Within  a span of 50-60 years some microscopic changes have also taken place. Due to the education system in place then majority had access to government schools which were reasonably well maintained. All high and low got admission in the same schools. Our people worked hard with many maintaining themselves on one meal a day, no roof on the head, no economic support but still produced Dalit persons who became proud residents of the Rashtrapati Bhawan and Raj Bhawans , crowned the highest seat of Indian judiciary(CJI) and many other prestigious seats of power as central Ministers, Chief Ministers of states, vice chancellors and professors of universities, engineers ,doctors. But alas for  the Dalit suppressors it proved bitter pill to swallow.. High caste people are not prepared to share power with any body else particularly Dalits. They want to enjoy the fruits of 100% reservation on elite posts and   places as Manu’s Laws despite being in numerical minority having 15% ( Brahmins—2%; Khatriyas—3% and Vaishyas-10%) in Indian population figures. But this upper caste Hindus 15% population is having85% of Indian wealth leaving 52% OBC with 9%, 22.5 % SC& STs with2% and 10.50% Religious Miniroties with 4% of country wealth.( Source :- Bhartiya Muleniwasi Sangathan) They are devising new methods and means to keep occupying permanently the seat of political power, the key to all powers. Besides using their ever green law of divide and rule, they have presently monopolized the educational, economic, social and religious system organs. Again they are the masters of their  fate and denial of rightful place to others.  Despite the sharp eyes and teeth of Indian constitutions to see and test their mischief  they are playing their mischief.. As they have occupied the controlling mechanism. They are busy in devising methods to dismantle even Baba Sahib’s Constitutional provisions and safe guards for common masses. Now it is time of the real test of the Dalit intellectuals to safe guard their collective interests so as not to fall back in the Dark Age of  old religious traps which was courageously challenged by our elders.  But how to do so?  For this we shall have to count our short comings and work harks to over come them. We will have to re- draw our new progressive road map and devise routes to achieve it. The task is difficult but a must for our survival.
   The biggest monster blocking our progressive road is our disunity. We Dalits have been divided in to over 4000 caste sub divisions ( S/C’s; S/T’s and OBC’ s ) each thinking superior to the other. This devil is surviving on the theory that each caste thinks superior to the next in line. We shall have to tame this demon and use our collective strength in occupying the constitutional seat of power by constitutional means. As late Shri Kanshi Ram said “Jiski  jitni Sakhya Bhari us ski utni sanjedari” meaning the share in power should be judged by the numerical head count. If we have suffered collectively now we should work hard to capture the seat of power collectively. This  is the golden rule for the democracy to succeed.
     Means of education are being systematically made to drift away from Dalit hands. We have to put the barriers against this drift. All our efforts should be to give quality education to our children. Our first priority should go to get quality education. Health and quality education to all our children should be our goals. Our teaching fraternity shall have to come out of their personnel comforts to share their educational expertise and help our youth to open their THIRED EYE.  Dr Ambedkar was a great supporter of women education, small family and healthy wife and husband relations. Try to achieve these ideals. Enhanced school and college fees should not worry us, so scarify other priorities for education. Those of us who have finances should open educational institutions may be collectively.  Read old Dalit emancipation history, Dalit emancipators, glories of Dalit heroes, Dalit warriors, social religious and political men of substance. Then disburse your knowledge among your Dalit brethren.  Many of our  Dalits have left the habit of reading, which is bad for our health. Follow Dr. Ambedkar’s saying “Time is knowledge and knowledge is money”.  School and college academic study   has limited aim of achieving  employment. After  employment social, history,  politica Science, religion, general knowledge, writing, delivering lectures on general topics should be our aim. Taking part in TV, radio discussions and attending conferences, debates should be continued. Purchasing quality books and read them with open mind is an extremely good habit, we should adopt it.
       We have suffered on account of lack of resources because of denial of money earning professions. Leaving  aside prejudices of higher castes as it shall continue. We have constitutional rights to occupy any official chair if we strive hard to qualify for  it . So we have to find avenues to achieve our high goals. Those of us who fail to achieve high goals,  should  go far technical trainings in ITI’s and should quickly settle on jobs befitting to his or her abilities and qualifications.  In modern days skilled and unskilled menial jobs are in great demands as very less persons are there to do these jobs willingly. Do not hesitate to adopt clean small jobs. The earning means adopted by our elders to make us occupy high official positions can still be perused by those who do not qualify to have an office jobs.  There are examples where peons  working  in  District Magistrates offices  have educated their sons to be District Magistrates in their service time. Skilled laborers’ are in great demands so get engaged less qualified personnel’s in Plumbing, Electric repairing, house electrification jobs,  tailoring, shoe making,  computer maintenance jobs, typing, drafting, petition writing, carpenters, welders , painters, stamp venders, tabas, restaurants, tea stalls, daily workers etc. Banking institutions provide finances and subsidies for such jobs as well. Help our persons to obtain bank loans to start their self help jobs. Our people should maintain a list of Dalit officers, employees so as to approach them in times of need. Maintain a good rapport with them. Call them to our parties, marriages, and religious functions and honour them suitable in full public view.  Our advocates, our Bank Managers, BDO’s. Doctors, Engineers, Thana Munshies, sepoys , Thanadars,  peons, clerks, pharmaceuticals, compounders, and municipality employees are important persons and can render great helps. We do not need to support a wrong doers but our legitimate works should not suffer on account of curtail able delays. Silent help is worth more than making noises for small things. Frame good opinions about our own employees and workers. Avail benefits of the scholarship, subsidies, housing schemes, old age and family pension’s schemes. Dalit employees should try to get such benefits to deserving Dalit men and women on merits. Do not dispose off properties unnecessarily reserve them for your coming generations. Be watch full during admission to different technical and higher studies institutions so as to get quota as per norms. In case of deliberate scuttling or  denials move courts for redresses. Get Court stays if necessary, do not compromise on your constitutional rights. Dalit intellectuals should keep a watch on recruitments too. A strong compain should be launched to get reservation in private sector which controls  nears Eight Crores employment potential against only two Crores  under government schemes and departments.
Dalit entrepreneurs should establish their own industries and business houses, Give preference to the Dalit skilled and unskilled personnel’s  in employments as per merit.
  Once we earn money save it. Do not waste it in unnecessary parties, dowries, rituals, rites, thirath  yatras, worshipping dead, bhandars, jagratas, and orthodox religion offerings. But Dalit religious and social organizations engaged in Dalit education and other welfare schemes need be given financial support. Save by curtailing wastage of money Resort to giving cash, Cash FD’s in gifts on birthdays, marriages, retirement parties so that the money is not wasted. Drinking, smoking, gutka chewing and other intoxicants be avoided. Such dirty habits not only drains your resources but makes you sick too. We have reached the present stage with the suffering of our elders. They did not have money still cared for us. Let us always remember their sacrifices and use our intellect for the progress of coming generations. No family can be classifies as progressed till it maintains the family progress for at least three generations. Many of us are still in second generation so do not rest .Every Dalit  educated person owes a lot to every other individual, rich or poor ,educated or illiterate because their mere presence in the states and country enhances the monetary allotments  for their  welfare schemes. We should vote all as per our conscious. But maintain good will with politicians too because present system gives them lot of powers.  Get government funds utilized for your wellbeing. Adopt constitutional means. Avoid small irritants. Follow the golden rule “Unity hath strength”. Involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct is a great saying follows it. But a word of causation, we have to maintain good will in the society,  honour spirit  of follow feeling, universal brotherhood and adopt peaceful but, constitutional means to achieve of goals.
Before winding up discussion I want to quote from Dr Ambedkar saying “The good things of this earth do not fall from heaven. Every progress has it bill of costs and only those who pay for it will have that progress”.
      Once again I thank you all for providing me am opportunity to meet you all to listen me with apt attention. I extent my apologies for any harsh saying which might have hurt any body’s feeling.
                                   Jai Bhim, Jai Gurudev, Jai Bharat.
Words 3974.
                                                                                                       Er. H.R.Phonsa  
Dated 4-1-2013                                                                               Jammu


Tuesday, November 1, 2016


1. Personalities who influenced  Dr.Ambedkar the most
The life storey of Bharat Ratana Baba Saheb  Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar   is a saga of great struggles and achievements. Dr Ambedkar used to compare himself with Moses, who ( Moses) wanted to relieve the Israeli’s from forced labour and their unending servitude so led his peoples to Palestine. Dr Ambedkar led his peoples to break the yoke of religious, political social and economic barriers imposed by Hindu un-natural laws framed against his peoples called Shudhars,  Ati Shudras untouchables, Namashudras etc. Dr Ambedkar catalogued, expanded and interpreted the code of laws of his country. He was opposed to Mahatma Gandhi in many ways, still keeping in view the   Dr. Ambedkar’s contributions for the Indian Nation, Mahatma Gandhi described him as a man who has carved out  in society a unique position for himself and he is not a man to allow himself  to be forgotten. Perhaps he was born to cut the age old caste shackles of his peoples, which had reduced their life to even below of those of animals.
 Life Sketch :-
Bharat  Ratana Baba Saheb  Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar  was born on 14 th April 1891 at Mhow a cantonment, now  Dr Ambedkar Nagar, of Indore District in Madhya Pradesh state of India His parents  revered  Subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal and Mata Bhimabai were  Mahar  by caste. It is said that Mahars were the rulers of Marashtra (Mahar + Rashtra ) but because of  Hindu agony  backed by  caste based  values, they were reduced to the level of Untouchables, Sudras, Ati sudra, whose mere shadow touching was considered enough to pollute an upper caste Hindu. Child and  Young Ambedkar personally faced worst type of caste hate. He was made to sit outside  his classroom, went without water for hours. He worked over 18 hours a day and at times sky was his roof and the earth his floor. Bhimrao was married to Ramabai at the tender age of 17 years when his spouse was only of 9 years.  Mata Ramabai stood like a rock by her Saheb till her death on May 27, 1935. Due to handwork of duo father and son  Bhimrao earned world’s Highest academic  Degrees of ( London ); PhD and LL.D  (Columbia ); M.A ; D. Lit ( Osmania )  Bar –at- Law (London ) . Dr Ambedkar knew seven languages. Dr Ambedkar also served  on highly prestigious positions  as Labour member( Minister) of Viceroy’s Executive Council   (1942-46 ) ; First Law Minister Of Independent India and earned the distinction of being selection as Chairman Of the Constitution Drafting  Committee to draft Constitution for free India .He earned the proud citation or  title of “ father Of Indian constitution.” Some called him Mother of Indian Constitution as well. He proved an emancipator for Dalits, a torch bearer for the liberation of slaves’ world over and an insurmountable rock for his opponents. He contributed for the freedom of India, but more for the Dalits, who were slaves to the slaves in British India.  He was highly praised by those who understood his odious cause for the liberation of his Dalit community persons including women , but also abused as traitor by those who never appreciated his mission of life and wanted to maintain status-quo in social, political, educational, economic and religious spheres even after independence. Bharat Ratna Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, was an economist, philosopher, jurist, anthropologist, Buddhist activist, a revolutionary, a prolific writer and a political leader with few equals world over. He was for vibrant change and often said “Consistency is a virtue of an ass”.
                     Personalities who influenced Ambedkar the most:-
A)          Subedar Major Ramji Maloji Sakhpal( 1849-1916) : - He was revered father of Dr.Ambedkar and son of   Maloji Sakpal  a retired Havaldar in the Bombay Army of the East India Company.  Dr. Ambedkar inherited Honesty, Hard working, dedication, urge to get higher education, mental strength, boldness and clarity in his conduct besides dedication to work for elevation of his fellow untouchables.
B)           Kabir :-  Sadguru Kabir was 15th-century Indian revolutionary  mystic poet and saint , who caused indomitable influence in childhood of  Dr. Ambedkar.  Ambedkar’s formally Sakhpal family belonged to the devotional path shown by  Sadguru Kabir ji a great  Dalit Saint . Devotional songs of Kabir Ji were daily sung with love by the family, which effected the tender mind set of child Bhimrao. Kabir Ji’s verses including “Jat Pat Pushey Na koye, Har Ko Bhaje so Har Ka hoi” i.e Caste does not decide your fate, but your devotion to Lord is supreme. Kabir Ji was taken as Ambedkar’s Second Guru, first being Budha.
C)       Budha( c. 563 BCE or c. 480 BCE to c. 483 BCE or c. 400 BCE (aged 80):- The Budha philosophy influnced Ambedkar the most. He like Budha revolted against Vedas, Upnishadas, un-natural Brahminical division of the humans.  He studied Bhudha deepely , so like Budha he always adopted just ways of his conduct negating Brahminical  ways of salvation as religious rites, rituals, religious ceremonies, and sacrifices . He was firm believer like Budha that every individual was the maker or spoiler of one’s destiny. Budha never proclaimed himself as God, Avtar or His incarnation, so influenced the inner mind of Dr. Ambedkar. When he got convinced that Hinduism was immune to reform. He brought back Buddha to India by embracing Buddhism on 14 th   October 1956 along with over three Lacs of men and women. Dr. Ambedkar lived for 22 days after conversion to Buddhism and during this small period Lacs of  Dalits got converted to Buddhism. Both Buddha and Dr. Ambedkar believed “Thousands of candles can be lighted from a single candle, and the life of the candle will not be shortened. Happiness never decreases by being shared. “. Dr. Ambedkar in his last days wrote a Master Book of 599 pages on Buddhism “Buddha and His Dhamma”.            Dr. Ambedkar got greately influenced by Buddha ‘s universal guiding verse “Be thy own light”.
D)       Jyotiba Phule (1827-1890):- Rashterpita  Jyotiba Phule was the greatest Shudra of modern India, who made Hindu Untouchables conscious of their slavery to the Upper  Caste Hindus. He gave the gospel that in India Social democracy was more vital than independence from foreign rule and or economic reforms . Phule started 18 school in Poona for girls against stanch opposition from the caste Hindus as education for women was sin in  Hindu Manu Laws.  He is considered as political Guru Of Dr. Ambedkar and both were convinced that all human  are equal  by birth so has right to  equal opportunities for progress in all spheres. Both fought throughout their lives to break social and economical barriers erected to segregate men on their castes at birth.
E)        Booker T. Washington(1856-1915): - During Dr. Ambedkar’s American stay, he was greatly influenced by the Constitution of  U.S.A.  and its fourteenth Amendment  declaring freedom to Negroes.  Dr. Ambedkar was influenced most by the life of Booker Taliaferro Washington was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community .He founder and remained President of Tuskegee Institute, which disseminated among Negroes the gospel of education of the head, heart and hand and thus broke the barriers of bondage through which Negroes were crushed for ages physically, educationally, mentally, socially and spiritually. Booker T. Washington died in 1915 when Dr. Ambedkar was in America and passed his M.A. degree. Washington mobilized a nationwide coalition of middle-class blacks, church leaders, and white philanthropists and politicians, with a long-term goal of building the community's economic strength and pride by a focus on self-help and schooling. Dr Ambedkar learnt from the life story of Booker T. Washington the spirit of fight for the cause of freedom of his untouchable brothers’, who were treated even worse than Negroes, in Indian society.
F)        John Dewey: - John Dewey was his mentor at Columbia University, whose philosophy helped shape Dr. Ambedkar towards a critical analysis of the hard problems facing the society. He advocated dynamic and pragmatic approach to drive the humanity out of the troubles it was confronted with. Both criticized the old philosophers, who advocated idealism and other obsolete things. John Dewey methods of inquiry had influenced Ambedkar to deal with hard and painful situations. Both were practical political scientists, so paid pointed attention to practical rather than mere academic politics. Ambedkar learnt from Dewey’s emphasis on education as means to change the world and not  only to understand it. Both believed that Education should be capable of creating human values having universal application. Both established them selves on everyday life of an average man in their respective country. Dr. Ambedkar’s association with John Dewey provided the basis for a systematic  study and analysis of problems relating to politics, economics, society religion and history .Ambedkar’s conclusion that , society is equally if not more, aggressive and tyrannical than the Government is based on deep study of these subjects.
G)       J.S. Mill(1806-1873): -John Stuart Mill an English philosopher, civil servant political economistand  feminist. He was one of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism.He contributed widely to social theorypolitical theory and political economy. He has been called "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century. Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. John S.Mill was a member of the Liberal Party, he was the first Member of Parliament to call for women's suffrage . Women of United Kingdom  above the age of 21 got voting rights in 1928 after a long struggle by reformists as J.S. Mill.  Dr. Ambedkar was greatly influenced from the writing of Mill, a great political philosopher as he too had advocated freedom of thought, freedom of speech and freedom of action. Mill’s philosophy molded the political philosophy of Ambedkar.
H)       Ranade ( 1842-1901) :  He was a distinguished Indian scholar, social reformer and author. He was a founding member of the Indian National Congress and owned several designations as member of the Bombay legislative council, member of the finance committee at the centre, and the judge of Bombay High Court
 Life and work storey of Justice Ranade, father of Indian Socio- political revolution casted a great influence on     Dr Ambedkar. Dr Ambedkar was called upon to deliver 101 birth anniversary address of Justice Ranade which fell on 18th January1940. Dr Ambedkar learnt about Ranade, when he retrieved from the old papers of his father, a petition drafted by Justice Ranade against banning recruitment of Mahars into Indian Army in 1892. Philosophy of Justice Ranade was summed up by Dr. Ambedkar himself as
A) We should not hold ideals purely imaginary.
B) In politics sentiments and temperaments of the people are more important than intellect and theory.
 C) In political negotiations the rule should be what is possible, that does not mean that we should be content with what is offered.
 Why Ambedkar agreed with the terms of Poona Pact of 1932 with Mahatma Gandhi and other Caste Hindus by sacrificing the benefits of the Communal Award can be accessed from his above said political philosophy.
I)     Karl  Marx(1818-1883) :- Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and his work has been both lauded and criticised His work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought Many intellectuals, labour unions, artists and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's work, Dr. Ambedkar was also immensely influenced by Karl Marx’s theory of class struggle as he was aware of the   merciless exploitation of the poor all over the world. But in India poor were exploited both by rich and Higher Caste Hindus alike. While explaining difference between Class and Caste Dr. Ambedkar observed    “Downtrodden peoples of India are first to be fired and last to be hired  ”. Dr Ambedkar was of the firm view of uniting of the exploited peoples and make them realize being slaves, so they shall revolt against the prevailing exploitation orientated higher castes controlled system. But Dr. Ambedkar differed with Marx on the point that suffering was not only from the economic factors but from social factors as well. Ambedkar had experienced religious tyranny more severe and organized than state tyranny and poverty ridden upper caste Hindus were equally or even more cruel towards poor untouchables. Had the economic gradation universal truth, then poor upper caste people would not  have joined  hands with the exploiters of downtrodden poor. But the upper caste poor and illiterates are  even more hate infested towards untouchables than others. Had there been any meeting grounds on the basis of economic conditions of upper and lower caste people the caste exploitation would have since died.
 II. Dr. Ambedkar as an education, Labour, Political and social and woman reformist
                                    Crusader of Dalit Education
Ambedkar was convinced that education besides being means of livelihood was a powerful weapon to liberate the Dalits from ignorance and to strengthen their fight against injustice and humiliation. He considered education as prequalification for any organization and movement of Dalits. So he gave his Golden  slogan to Dalits “Unite, Educate and Agitate”  . He picked up lessons from the strong note  of Bernard Shaw ,” Honest education is dangerous to tyranny and privilege; the system like Capitalist system kept in vogue the popular ignorance, Churches which depend upon it for priestly authority, privileged classes and ambiguous conquerors and dictators, who have to instill royalty and  romantic hero worship, all use ignorance and education as underpinning for general faith in themselves as rulers” So  to negate the ill effects of illiteracy of his peoples and to equip them with quality education he opened Mallind Mahavidhalaya Aurangabad ( Maharashtra); Sidharath College Of Commerce And Economics Bombay; and Siddhartha Law College Bombay. Ambedkar built his house “Raj Girah” in Bombay to house a library.   Mr. John Munther  wrote in his book Inside Asia(1938) that the personnel library of Dr. Ambedkar had 8000 books ,the biggest in the whole world. Dr. Ambedkar personnel library had 50,000 books in 1956. In comparison even collective knowledge of 500 educated adults fell short of Dr. Ambedkar‘s wisdom.
   To prepare his peoples to safe guard their Human Rights through spread of  his message more effectively he  started Journals namely  Mook Nayak ( Leader of the Dumb), Bahiskrit Bharat ( Excluded India), Samta ( Equality) Janta (Peoples) during his life time. His only surviving son Jaswant Bhaiya was interested in printing of the literature written by his father, so he established a printing press at Bombay (now Mumbai) named as "Buddha Bhhushan Press".
         Indian Women Liberator
 The woman was considered lowest of the low in the Indian society, so Ambedkar fought a very difficult battle for their cause. He blew  bugle of fight against discrimination and exploitation on the basis of one’s caste, creed , sex or place of birth.. His principle of life was to speak, work and fight for the just cause of oppressed, depressed, exploited, illiterates including women.  He worked lifelong for the welfare of ill fed and ill treated men and women irrespective of their caste or social status, place of birth affiliations. He did not  care for his personnel and family life discomforts for this sacred cause .   On March 19/20, 1927 he addressed a huge meeting of depressed classes, including women, and gave strong call for liberation of women. He advised them to attend more to their development of mind and the spirit of self help; He said that education was as necessary for development of women as was for men. He declared “As you are, so shall be your children”. While addressing largely attended Depressed Classes   Women conference on 18-19 July 1942, he said, “He measured the progress of a community by the degree of progress made by the women of that community.  He advised, let every girl who marries, stand by her husband, claim to be her husband’s friend and equal and refuse to be his slave. He advocated avoiding early marriage and producing too many children. Give proper education to your children, so that they live a dignified life”.  Dr Ambedkar advocated for equal wages for equal work without discrimination on the basis of sex or caste, besides grant of paid maternity leave to expecting mothers. While strongly supporting proposed maternity benefits to women in Bombay Legislative Council in 1928 he said “---- it is in the interest of the Nation that the mother ought to get a certain amount of rest during the pre-natal period and also subsequently”. As Labour member( Minister) of Viceroy’s Council Dr. Ambedkar worked to reform Labour Laws. Equal pay for equal work was his doctrine. The present day Labour Laws are based on the concept of Dr. Ambedkar the First Law Minister of Independent India was disappointed due to non passage of the Hindu Code Bill, as was conceived by him and promised support by Pt. Nehru under opposition from Hindu chauvinism . He sacrificed his Cabinet Law Ministry and resigned on September, 27, 1951 as a matter of protest. This  is a rare worldwide historical example where a Central Minister of a Government had resigned for the cause of women of that country.
              Modern Manu
 To register his strong resentment against Manu Smiriti, Hindu Law Book, which closed all doors of education and dignified life avenues for Shudars including Hindu women, Dr. Ambedkar burnt it in full public view on 24 December 1927 with promise to give new Laws based on the doctrine of equality for all men and women irrespective of their Caste, creed, place of birth, sex and economic status. This promise he fulfilled by becoming the Father Of Indian Constitution based on the Law of Equality  for all  so as to promote Fraternity among them . Ambedkar regarded the waging of a battle against social bans as his religion. Dr. Ambedkar a great believer in living with human dignity, was denied water from common source as student, college professor, military Secretary Of Baroda State, so organized his fight for right to draw water from the Chavdar public  water Tank at Mahad for his peoples on 20th March 1927. He was driven out of temples. Untouchables organized a peaceful march to have entry into Kala Ram temple at Nasik, but Caste Hindus resisted their entry by closing all the fourteen doors of the temple. So on 2 March 1930, a long march was organized under leadership Of Ambedkar to have forceful entry, where large number of untouchables including Ambedkar himself was injured from stone pelting of Brahmins. Finally when superstition infected Caste Hindus resisted reforms in their religion to make it scientific based universally acceptable relgion Dr.Ambedkar declared to leave it. He was convinced that Hindu religion was immune to any reform.  He embraced Buddhism on 14 October, 1956 along with is reported ten Lac followers at Nagpur Dhamma Diksha Bhoomi.                               
                                                Dispute with Gandhi
 Although on Gandhi’s instance Ambedkar was made Chairman of the Drafting Committee of Free India’s Republic Constitution .Ambedkar held divergent views on various matters concerning Indian community, particularly Minorities than Gandhi Ji. Shri M.K. Gandhi was called Mahatma by all but Ambedkar, who said, “Mahatmas have come and Mahatmas gone but problems of untouchables have remained the same”. Mahatma Gandhi a Sanatani Hindu held the views that in free India Hindus should be given time to reform themselves and express their repentance  for the past sins of ill treating untouchables. The removal of untouchbility and economic reforms for untouchables should not create ill will among Hindus. Education to Dalits and initiation of other economic reforms for them in free India shall remove the age old stigma of untouchbility automatically. Gandhi opposed Separate Electorates for Scheduled Castes and went on Fast unto death in Yarwada jail in Poona against it.
Ambedkar was convinced from the ill treatment met to him in person and his depressed brethren by Upper caste Hindus needs surgical treatment. Although Ambedkar pleaded to British Government to give freedom to India as it had failed to watch the interests of Depressed classes by siding with caste Hindus on this subject, but he held interests of his peoples more dear than granting of even freedom from the British Raj. He was pleader of equal rights and welfare measures in free Indian as a matter of right for the Slaves of Slaves of British India viz. Depressed India.  He opposed Gandhi and Congress for the opposition to main demand of separate Electorates granted under Simon Commission or Communal Award, but still saved Mahatma’s life by signing Poona Pact 27th August1932 under duress, for larger National interests. Ambedkar opposed the half hearted welfare measures initiated by the Congress Party for the Scheduled castes and held the view that these were mere propaganda stunt than having motto of solving their religious, educational, social and economic problems and free them from the stigma of obligations. Ambedkar wanted Constitutional Rights for his peoples so that they could stand with erect spine. Despite being a central Minister in Cogress Ministry after india attained independence,he was never  even an ordinary member of this party. He had advised his people  not to join or align with this party.
   Constitutional Expert
 Ambedkar, himself was a par excellent Constitutional expert. He had equipped himself with world’s highest academic Law degrees. He worked as Law professor Bombay College for a short time. He has tremendous insight into intricacies of education, law, social sciences, economics and religious principals. He held the view that public representatives should not only be experts (Gyanwan) but should have imbibed in them virtues (Sheel). He said “Gyan with out Sheel is dangerous” He gave free Indian Republic the world’s voluminous Constitution based on the principals of equality to all so as to have fraternity among its citizens.  He was for the State to be a Welfare State. His doctrine of non negotiable fundamental Rights was unique. The removal of stigma of untouchbility by law cut the very root of Hindu caste gradation responsible for the degeneration of the society. Law of Reservation in services for the candidates from SC’s, STs, OBCs( later) and also for elected representatives  from these communities provided not only means of livelihood but livelihood with dignity.
As a Parliamentarian: - His ability as a representative of Untouchables was displayed in the three Roundtable Conferences in London, where ways and means were discussed for the future Indian Constitution. He gave in sight of the miserable plight of his people’s viz. Untouchables in British India and pleaded for Indian Freedom with equal rights based on Human Rights. His crusade for liberation of his peoples got firm roots with his election as member of for Bombay Legislative Council on 17 Feb. 1937 and it continued till his death on
        6th Dec 1956.While speaking on the role of people’s representatives he said” No hungry man is going to be sympathetic  to a critic who is going to tell him” my dear fellow although I am in power, although I am in authority, although I possess all legal power to set matters right, you must not expect me to do a miracle because I have inherited a past which is very inglorious------” If this Government  will not produce results with a certain time, long before the peoples became  so frustrated, so disgusted with Government, as not to have a Government at all. To the parliamentarians of our country Dr Ambedkar cautioned ” I suppose, Unless we in Parliament realize our responsibilities and shoulder the task of looking after the welfare and good of people with in a reasonable time that this Parliament will be treated by the public outside with utter contempt. It would be a thing not wanted at all”.
           India shall be great only by  following  the path shown by this great son of India  His adeals if followed in the right spirit shall  help making State as a welfare State and to strive by all practical means to create situation for flourishing of fraternity among its peoples with out discrimination of Caste, creed, sex, economic, social, religious and place of birth affiliations.
  Compiled by:-                                      Er. H. R. PHONSA ( Jammu)
                                                              Mob:- 9419134060