Wednesday, February 20, 2013

22 Vows (Pratigya) of Ambedkar

 Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar embraced Buddhism on 14 October, 1956, the Vijay Dakshami and  Dassara day. On 15th October again a conversion to Buddhism was held  at the same venue On 16 October 1956, Ambedkar performed another mass religious conversion ceremony at Chanda. After receiving ordination, Ambedkar gave Dhamma Diksha to his followers. The ceremony included 22 vows given to all new converts after  Three Jewels (The Bhudda, theDharma and The Sangha) and Five Precepts( to  strictly adhere to non violence or Ahinsa, committing no theft,  avoidance of sensual (including sexual) misconduct, to always speak truth and  to stictly avoid  taking intoxicants which lead to loss of mindfulness (specifically, drugs and alcohol)

Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prescribed 22 vows to his followers:-
  1. I shall have no faith in Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara nor shall I worship them.
  2. I shall have no faith in Rama and Krishna who are believed to be incarnation of God nor shall I worship them.
  3. I shall have no faith in Gauri, Ganapati and other gods and goddesses of Hindus nor shall I worship them.
  4. I do not believe in the incarnation of God.
  5. I do not and shall not believe that Lord Buddha was the incarnation of Vishnu. I believe this to be sheer madness and false propaganda.
  6. I shall not perform Shraddha nor shall I give pind-dan.
  7. I shall not act in a manner violating the principles and teachings of the Buddha.
  8. I shall not allow any ceremonies to be performed by Brahmins.
  9. I shall believe in the equality of man.
  10. I shall endeavor to establish equality.
  11. I shall follow the noble eightfold path of the Buddha.
  12. I shall follow the ten paramitas prescribed by the Buddha.
  13. I shall have compassion and loving kindness for all living beings and protect them.
  14. I shall not steal.
  15. I shall not tell lies.
  16. I shall not commit carnal( sensual) sins.
  17. I shall not take intoxicants like liquor, drugs etc.
  18. I shall endeavor to follow the noble eightfold path and practice compassion and loving kindness in every day life.
  19. I renounce Hinduism, which is harmful for humanity and impedes the advancement and development of humanity because it is based on inequality, and adopt Buddhism as my religion.
  20. I firmly believe the Dhamma of the Buddha is the only true religion.
  21. I believe that I am having a re-birth.
  22. I solemnly declare and affirm that I shall hereafter lead my life according to the principles and teachings of the Buddha and his Dhamma.
Nowadays many Ambedkarite Organizations are working for these 22 vows (i.e. 22 Pratigya). They believe that these vows only are responsible for the existence & rapid growth of present Buddhism in India. According to the 2001 census, there are currently 7.95 million Buddhists in India, at least 5.83 million of whom are Buddhists in Maharashtra [8]. This makes Buddhism the fifth-largest religion in India and 6% of the population of Maharashtra, but less than 1% of the overall population of India.

Some Important Facets of Dr.Ambedkar’s Life

           The life storey of Bharat Ratana Baba Sahib Dr.Bhimrao Ambedkar is a saga of great struggles and achievements. Dr.Ambedkar usted to compare himself with Moses, Who (Moses) wanted to relieve the Israelis from the forced labour and their unending servitude so led his people to palestine. Dr.Ambedkar led his peoples to break the yoke of religious, political, social & economic barriers imposed by Hindu unnatural laws framed against his peoples called Shudras, Ati Shudras and untouchables. Dr.Ambedkar Catalogued expanded and interpreted the code of laws of his country. He was opposed to Mahatma Gandhi in many ways, still keeping in view Dr.Ambedkar’s contributions for the Indian Nation, Mahatma Gandhi described him as a man who has carved out in society a unique postion for himself and he is no a man to allow himself to be forgotten. Perhaps he was born to cut the age old caste shackles of his peoples, which had reduced their life to even below of those of animals.
     Life Sketch :- Bharat Ratana Baba Saheb Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar was born on 14th April 1891 at Mhow to revered Subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal & Mata Bhimbai in Mahar Community. It is said that Mahars were the rulers of Marashtra (Mahar + Rashtra) but because of Hindu hegemony and caste based values, they were reduced to the level of Untouchables, Shudras, Ati Shudras, whose only shadow was considered enough to pollute an upper caste Hindu. Ambedkar worked over 18 hurs a day and at times sky was his roof and the earth his floor; Bhimrao was married to Ramabai at the tender age of 17 years when his spouse was only of 9 years. Mata Ramabai stood like a rock by her Saheb till her death on May 27, 1935. Due to hard work of father & son, Bhimrao earned world’s highest academic Degrees of D.Sc (London); PhD &LL.D (Columbia); M.A; D.lit (Osmania) Bar-at law (London). Dr. Ambedkar knew seven languages. Dr Ambedkar  also served on highly prestigious positions as Labour member of Viceroy’s Executive Council (1942-46); First Law Minister of Independent India & aarned the distinction of selection as Chairman of the constitution Drafting Committee to draft constitution for free India & also is so called “father of Indian constitution “Some called him Mother of Indian Constitution as well. He proved an emancipator for Dalits, a torch bearer for the liberation of slaves’ world over and an insurmountable rock for his opponents. He contributed for the freedom of India, but more for the Dalits,  who were slaves to the slaves  of British India. He was highly praised by those who understood his just cause for the liberation of his Dalit community persons, but also abused as traitor by those who never appreciated his mission of life and wanted to maintain status-quo in social, political, educational, economic and religious spheres even after independence. He was change and often said” Consistency is a virtue of an ass”.
Personalities who influenced Ambedkar the most: -
A)    Subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal :- Honesty, Hard working, dedication, urge to get higher education, boldness in his conduct and to work for elevation of his fellow untouchables was learned by Abmedkar fromhis father subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal.
B)    Kabir: - Dr.Ambedkar’s family belonged to the devotional path shown by Sadguru Kabir ji, a great Dalit Saint Devotional songs of Kabir Ji were daily sung with love by the family, which affected the tender mind set of child Bhimrao. Kabir Ji’s verses including “Jat Pat Pushey Na Koye, Har Ko Bhaje so har Ka hoi” i.e Caste does not decided your fate, but your devotion to lord is supereme. Kabir Ji was taken as Ambedkar’s Second Guru, first being Budha.
C)    Budha : - The Budha philosophy influenced Ambedkar the most. He like Budha revolted against Vedas, upanishadas, un-natural Brahminical division of the humans, he studied Bhudha deeply, so like rites, rituals, religious ceremonies, sacrifice. He was firm believer like Budha that every individual was the maker or spoiler of one’s destiny. Budha never proclaimed himself as God, Avtar or His incarnation, so influenced the inner mind of Dr.Ambedkar. When he got convinced that Hinduism was immune to reform, he brought back Buddha to India by embracing Buddhism on 14th October 1956 along with over three lacs of men & women. Dr.Ambedkar lived for 52 days after conversion to Buddhism and during this small period over Five Lacs Dalits got convertedto Buddhism. Dr.Ambedkar in his last days wrote a master book of 599 pages on Buddhism “Buddha and His Dramma”.
D)    Jyotiba Phule :- Jyotiba Phule was the greatest Shudra of modern India, who made Hindu untouchables conscious of their slavery to the Upper Caste Hindus. He gave the gospel that in India, Social democracy was more vital that independence form foreign rule. Phule started 18 schools Poona for girls against staunch opposition from the caste Hindus as education for women was sin in Hindu Manu Laws. He is considered as political Guru of Dr.Ambedkar and both were convinced that al men are equal by birth so need to be provided equal opportunities for progress in all spheres. Both fought throughout their lives to break social & economical barriers erected to segregate men on their castes at birth.
E)    Booker T.Washington :- During Dr.Ambedkar’s stay in America, he was influenced by the Constitution of U.S.A and its fourteenth Amendment declaring freedom to Negroes. He was also influenced mostby the life of Booker T.Washington  a great revolutionary, educator, reformer, Negro leade, who founded and remained President of Tuskegee Institute, which disseminated among Negroes the gospel of education of the head, heart and hand and thus broke the barriers of bondage through which negroes were crushed for ages physically, educationally, mentally, socially & spiritually. Booker T.Washington died in 1915 when Dr.Ambedkar was in America and passed his M.A.Degree Dr.Ambedkar learnt from the life storey of Booker T.Washtington the spririt of fight for the cause of freedom of his brethren untouchables, who wre treated even worst than Negroes, in Indian society.
F)     John Dewey :-  John Dewey was his mentor at Columbia University, whose philosophy helped shape Dr.Ambedkar towards a critical analysis of the hard problems facing the society. He advocated dynamic and pragmatic approach to driver the humanity out of the troubles it was confronted with. Both criticized the old philosophers, who advocated idealism and other obsolete things. John Dewey’s method of inquiry had influenced Ambedkar to deal with hard and painful situations. Both were practical political scientist, so paid pointed attention to practical rather thatn mere academic politics. Ambedkar learnt from Dewey’s emphasis on education as means to change the world and not only to understand it. Both believed that Education should be capable of creating human values having universal application. Both established themselves on everyday life of an average man in their respective countries. Dr.Abmedkar’s association with John Dewey provided the basis for a systematic study and analysis of problems relating to politics, economics, society religion & history. Ambedkar’s conclusion that society is equally is not more aggressive and tyrannical than the Government, is based on deep study of these subject.
G)   J.S Mill :- Dr.Ambedkar was greatly influenced from the writing of Mill, a great political philosopher as he too had advocated freedom of thought, freedom of speech and freedom of action. Mill’s philosophy moulded the political philosophy of Ambedkar.
H)    Ranade :- Life & work story of Justice Mahadev Govind Ranade, father of Indian Socio-political revolution cast a great influence on Dr.Ambedkar. Dr.Ambdar was called upon to deliver 101st Birthday Anniversy address of Justice Ranade which fell on 18th January 1940. Dr.Ambedkar learnt about Ranade, When he retrieved from the old papers of his father, a petition drafted by Justice by Justice Ranade against banningrecruitment of Mahars into Indian Army in 1892. Philosophy of Justice Ranade was summed up by Dr.Ambedkar himself as
i)                    We should not hold ideals purely imaginary.
ii)                  In politics sentiments and temperaments of the people are more important that intellect and theory.
iii)                In political negotiations the rule should be what is possible, that does not mean that we should be content with what is offered.
Why Ambedkar agreed with the terms of Poona Pact of 1932 with Mahatma Gandhi and other caste Hindus by sacrificing the benefits of the Communal Award cab be assessed from his above said political philosophy.
I)       Karl Marx: - Dr.Ambedkar was also immensely influenced by Karl Marx’s theory of class struggle as he was aware of the merciless exploitation of the poor all over the world. But in India poor were exploited both by rich and Higher Caste Hindus alike. While explaining difference between Class & Caste Dr.Ambedkar observed “Downtrodden people of India are first to be fired and last to be hired”. Dr.Ambedkar was of the firm view of uniting the exploited people and make them realize being slaves, so they shall revolt against it. But Dr.Ambedkar differed with Marx on the point that suffering was not only from the economic factors as well. Ambedkar had experienced religious tyranny more severe & organized that state tyranny and poverty ridden upper caste Hindus were equally or even more cruel towards poor untouchables.
J)      Crusader of Dalit Education: - Ambedkar was convinced that education besides being means of livelihood was a powerful weapon to liberate the Dalits from ignorance and to strengthen their fight against injustice Dalits. So he gave his Golden slogan to Dalits “Educate, Agitate, Organise. “To prepare his peoples to safeguard their Human Rights through spread of his message more effectively, he started journals namely Mook Nayak (Leader of the Dumb), Bahiskrit Bharat (Excluded India), Samta (Equality) Janta (Peoples). He picked up lesson from the strong noteof Bernard Shaw, “ Honest education is dangerous  to tyranny and privilege; the system like Capitalist system kept in vogue the popular ignorance, Churches which depend upon it for priestly authority, privileged classes and ambiguous conquerors and dictators, who have to instill royalty and romantic hero worship, all use ignorance and education as underpinning for general faith in themselves as rulers” so to negate the ill effects of his people and to equip them with quality education, he opened Mallind Mahavidhalaya Aurangabad (maharashtra); Sidharath College of Commerce and Economics Bombay; and Siddhartha Law College Bombay. Ambedkar built this house “Rajgrih” in Bombay to house a library.
K)   Indian Women Liberator: - The woman was considered lowest of the low in the Indian society, so Ambedkar fought a very difficult battle for their cause. He blew bugle of fight against discrimination and exploitation on the basis of one’s caste, creed, sex or place of birth. His principle of life was to speak, work & fight for the just cause of oppressed, depressed, exploited, illiterates, ill fed & ill treated men & women irrespective of their caste or social status, place of birth affiliations and without caring for his personal comforts. On March 19-20, 1927 he addressed a huge meeting ad depressed classes including women, and gave strong call for liberation of women. He advised them to attend more to their development of mind and the spirit of self help; He said that education was as necessary for development of women as was for men. He declared “ As you are, so shall be your children”. While addressing largely attended Depressed Classes Women conference on 18-19 July 1942, he said, “He measured the progress of a community by the degree of progress made by the women of that community. He advised, let every girl who marries, stand by her husband, claim to be here husband’s friend and equal and refuse to be his slave. He advocated avoiding early marriage and producing too many children. Give proper education to your children, so that they live a dignified life”. Dr.Ambedkar advocated for equal wages for equal work without discrimination on the basis of sex or caste, besides grant of paid maternity leave to expecting mothers. While strongly supporting proposed maternity benefits to women in Bombay Legislative Council in 1928 he said, “---- it is in the interest of the Nation that the mother ought to get a certain amount of rest during the pre-natal period and also subsequently.” The first law Minister of Independent India was disappointed due to non passage of the Hindu Code Bill, as was conceived by him and promised support by Pt.Nehru. He sacrificed his cabinet Law Ministry and resigned on Sept. 27, 1951 as a matter of protest.
L)    Modern Manu:- To register his strong resentment against Manu Smiriti, Hindu Law Book, which closed all doors of education and to have dignified life avenues for shudras including Hindus women, Dr.Ambedkar burnt it in full public view on 24th December 1927 with promise to give new laws based on the doctrine of equality for al men and women irrespective of their caste, creed, place of birth, sex and economic status. This promise he fulfilled by way of enshrining liberty, equality and fraternity as the basic principles of socialist democracy in the constitution of India. Ambedkar regarded the waging of a battle against social bans as his religion.
M)  Striver of Dignity :- Dr.Ambedkar a great believer in living with human dignity, was denied water from common source as student, college professor, military Secretary of Baroda State, so organized his fight for right to draw water from the Chavdar public water Tank at Mahad for his people on 20th March, 1927. He was driven out of temples.  Untouchables organized a peaceful march to have entry into Kala Ram temple at Nasik, but Caste Hindus resisted their entry by closing al the fourteen doors of the temple. So on 2nd March, 1930, a long march was organized under leadership of Ambedkar to have forceful entry, where large number of untouchables including Ambedkar himself was injured from stone pelting of Brahmins. Ambedkar from the rigidity of the caste Hindus visualize futility of such struggles so he decided to leave Hindus religion, as he was convinced that Hindu religion was immune to any reform.
N)    Dispute with Gandhi: - Although on Gandhi’s instance Ambedkar was made Chairman of the Drafting Committee of Free India’s Republic constitution, Ambedkar held divergent views on various matter concerning Indian community, particularly Minorities than Gandhi Ji. Shri M.K.Gandhi was called Mahatma by all but Ambedkar, who said “Mahatmas have come and Mahatmas gone but problems of untouchables have remained the same.” Mahatma Gandhi Sanatani Hindu held the reviews that in free India Hindus should be given time to reform themselves and express their repentance fo rhte past sins of ill treating untouchables. The removal of untouchability and economic reforms for untouchables should not create ill will among Hindus. Education to Dalits & initiation of other economic reforms for them in free India shall remove the age old stigma of untouchability automatically. Gandhi opposed Separate Electorates for Scheduled Castes only & went on Fast unto death in Yarwada jail in Poona against it.
Ambedkar was convinced from the ill treatment meted out to him in person and his depressed brethren by Upper caste Hindus needed surgical treatment. Although Ambedkar pleaded to British Government to give freedom to India as it had failed to watch the interests of depressed classes by siding with caste Hindus on this subject, but he held interests of his people more dear than granting of even freedom the British Raj. He was pleader of equal rights and welfare measures in free India as a matter of right for the slaves of Slaves of British India say Depressed India. He opposed Gandhi & congress for the opposition to main demand of separate Electorates granted under Simon commission or communal Award, but still saved Mahatma’s life by signing Poona Pact on 27th August, 1932 under duress, for larger National interests. Ambedkar opposed the half hearted welfare measures initiated by the Congress Party for the Scheduled Castes and held the view that these were more propaganda stunt that having motto of solving their religious, educational, social and economic problems and free them from the stigma of obligations. Ambedkar wanted Constitutional Rights for his people so that they could stand with erect spine. On 5th November 1946 Baba Sahib demanded annulment of the Poona Pact and implementation of the Communal Award of the British Government.  In  1938 while addressing peasants rally he said, “ There are only two classes in the world—the exploiters and exploited. Peasents and workers must unite  selflessly and send their representatives to the Legislative Assembly for their own improvement”.
When the Hindus organized a meeting in Mumbai on 30 September 1932, (i.e., a week after the signing of the Poona Pact), to form an All-India Anti-Untouchability League, Gandhi, changed it to ‘Servants of Untouchables Society’. It was on this occasion that the Hindus joined together to fight against untouchability. There were eight members on the board. Dr Ambedkar, Rao Bahadur M.C.Rajah (1883-1947) and  Dewan Bahadur Rattamalai. Srinivasan ( 1860-1945) were included as representatives of the untouchables. All three subsequently withdrew from the board. Gandhi then renamed it as Harijan Seva Sangh. While explaining reasons to join this forum, ‘After the Poona Pact, I proceeded in a spirit of forget and forgive. I accepted the bona fides of Mr. Gandhi as I was asked to do by many of his friends. It was in that spirit that I accepted a place on the Central Board of the Sangh and was looking forward to play my part in its activities’.  He wanted to discuss the programme of the Sangh with Gandhi but could not do so as he had to leave for London to participate in the Third Round Table Conference. However, Dr. Ambedkar did write a detailed letter to A.V. Thakkar, Secretary of the Sangh, giving concrete proposals regarding the services to be rendered by the Sangh. The Depressed classes representative wanted the forum to concentrate on a programme ‘that will effect a change in the social environment of the Depressed Classes’
      The programmed drafted by Dr.Ambedkar had four components: (i) A campaign to secure civil rights; (ii) Equality of opportunity; (iii) Social intercourse; and (iv) Agency to be employed. The League was to employ a large army of workers to carry out this programme. Persons belonging to the Depressed Classes were to also be appointed, who alone ‘will regard the work as love’s labour’.But the Anti-Untouchability League did not pay any attention to these proposals; they did not even acknowledge Dr Ambedkar’s letter. The Congress used the ‘Harijan Seva Sangh’ to kill the movement of empowering untouchables after the withdrawal of these three representatives of the Depressed classes from the League. Sensing the crook ness of mind of the Hindus the Poona Pact was asked to be scraped by Dr Ambedkar 5thNovember 1946 and demanded enactment of the separate electorates for the Dalits as per the communal Award.
O)    Constitutional Expert:- Ambedkar himself was a par excellent, world class Constitutional expert. He had equipped himself with world’s highest academic Law degrees. He worked as Law Professor in Bombay College for a short time. He has tremendous insight into intricacies of education, law, social sciences, economics and religious principles. He held the view that public representatives should not only be experts (Gyanwan) but should have imbibed in them virtues (Sheel). He said “Gyan without Sheel is dangerous.” He gave free Indian Republic the world’s voluminous Constitution based on the principles of equality to all so as to have fraternity among its citizens. He was for the State to be a welfare State.
P)      As a parliamentarian: - His ability as a representative of Untouchables was displayed in the three Roundtable Conferences in London, where ways & means were discussed for the future Indian Constitution. He gave an insight of the miserable plight of his people’s viz. Untouchables in British India and pleaded for Indian Freedom with equal rights based on Human Rights. His crusade for liberation of his people got firm roots with his election as member of Bombay Legislative council on 17th February 1937 and it continued till his death on 6th December 1956. While speaking on the role of peoples representatives he said “No hungry man is going to be sympathetic to a critic who is going to tell him” my dear fellow although I am in power, although I am in authority, although I possess all legal power to set matters right, you must not expect me to do a miracle because I have inherited a past which is very inglorious --- “If this Government will not produced results with in certain time, long before the people became so frustrated, so disgusted with Government as not have a Government at all. To the parliamentarians of our country Dr Ambedkar cautioned “I suppose, unless we in parliament realize our responsibilities and shoulder the task of looking after the welfare and good of people within a reasonable time, this Parliament will be treated by the public outside with utter contempt. It would be a thing not wanted at all.”
The greatest tributes to this great son of India shall be to follow his ideals of making State as a welfare State and to strive by all practical means to create situation for flourishing of fraternity among its peoples without discrimination of caste, creed, sex, economic, social, religious and place of birth affiliations                                 


     Bharat  Ratana Baba Saheb  Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar  was born on 14 th April 1891 at Mhow to  revered  Subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal & Mata Bhimabai of Mahar Community. Mata Bhimabai died when Bhim was only six years old , so he  was brought up in the care of married sisters &  his father’s sister Mirabai .  It is said that Mahars were the rulers of Marashtra ( Mahar + Rashtra ) but because of  Hindu agony  & caste based  values, they were reduced to the level of Untouchables,Sudras, Ati sudra, whose only shadow was considered enough to pollute an upper caste Hindu. Ambedkar worked over 18 hours a day. Bhimrao was married to Ramabai at the tender age of 17 years when his wife was only of 9 years.  Mata Ramabai stood like a rock by her Saheb in the later life till her death on May 27, 1935.   Some incidents left life long impressions on Bhim & became turning points of his later life. He sacrificed his life comforts for the just cause of his suffering brethren.
                          While Bhim was in primary school his father remarried which was disliked by him, so he decided to go to Bombay (Now Mumbai) to get employed in some factory.  For arranging money for traveling he decided to steal money from the purse of his aunt Mirabai with whom he used to sleep on floor at night. Bhim spent four sleepless night to steal the purse and when he succeeded in his efforts, he found only half an Anna (Rs 0.03), with which he could not go to Bombay. This gave him the first jolt of his life and in sight of what poverty was, so he decided to leave truant habits & concentrate on his studies to pass his examination as early as possible to become independent of his father & step mother. He felt the stigma of Untouchability in his childhood. He along with his elder brother Balram and little nephew were going from Satara to Goregaon to meet his father, who worked at Goregoan as cashier. They got down at Padali railway station, but their father had not reached to receive them. So with the assistance of the station master, a caste Hindu, the children boarded a bullock cart to go to Goregoan . Only after going a few yards, the god fearing caste Hindu cart man came to know the well dressed children were untouchables, so he threw them down on the road saying they had polluted his cart & animals. As the night was falling, so the children begged to the cart man to help them. The cart man agreed on the terms that he will take double the fare and one of them shall drive the cart and he shall walk on foot behind the cart. On the way no body offered them a drop of water. Few days after this Bhim was mad with thrust and started drinking water at a public water place. On seeing this caste Hindus bates him black and blue.  One day a barber turned Bhim out of his shop and refused to cut his hair, as by doing so his razor shall get polluted and no caste Hindu shall come to his shop.  However this barber gladly performed buffalo- shaving with his razor.  These insulting and rude behaviors cast an impression on young Bhim that he belonged to a caste which had no respect with the caste Hindus. He decided to oppose it with all his might in his later life & he fulfilled this promise by leaving the Hindu religion. But still another instance reinforced his will to work for his downtrodden brethren to get them equal rights in political, constitutional, Religious, educational& economical fields.
                   After obtaining world’s highest Academic Degreed of M.A. PhD, Bar at Law he joined service as Military Secretary to the Maharaja of  Baroda. On reaching Baroda he was not accorded any reception befitting his official position. He and his elder brother, who had accompanied him, were not given any accommodation by any hotel. They took shelter in a Parsee inn, but his luggage was thrown out only after a few days ,  abusing  him as arrant knave and despicable untouchable . But he got spine shivering experience when poor illiterate but high Caste peons thought it polluting and sinful to hand over files and official papers to Doctor Ambedkar. They threw from a distance files and papers at him table. They rolled the mates when the Military Secretary, an untouchable got up to go out.  Drinking water was not made available to him and he had to go to public library for taking water and spending his spare time. His note to the Maharaja was sent to the Diwan, who shrew his inability to help Ambedkar.  He was hungry the sky was his roof & ground his floor. He decided to return to Bombay only after two months from mid September to mid November 1917. Subsequently Dr, Ambedkar resigned from the job and dedicated his whole life for the service of millions of oppressed peoples, who were denied all means of decent livelihood by their own religious rules books.
              Due to handwork of duo father& son,  Bhimrao earned world’s Highest academic  Degrees
          of ( London ); PhD & LL.D  (Columbia ); M.A ; D. Lit ( Osmania )  Bar –at- Law (London ) .etc
       Dr Ambedkar knew seven languages. Dr Ambedkar also served  on highly prestigious positions  as Labour member of Viceroy’s Executive Council (1942-46 ) ; First Law Minister Of Independent India & earned the distinction of serving  as Chairman Of the Constitution Drafting  Committee to draft Constitution for free India & is so called “ father Of Indian constitution.” Some called him Mother of Indian Constitution as well. He proved an emancipator for Dalits, a torch bearer for the liberation of slaves’ world over & soft & kind for his peoples, but an insurmountable rock for his opponents. He contributed for the freedom of India, but more for the Dalits, who were slaves to the slaves of British India.  He was highly praised by those who understood his odious cause for the liberation of his Dalit community persons, but also abused as traitor by those who never appreciated his mission of life & wanted to maintain status-quo in social, political, economic & religious spheres even after independence. Many peoples from different shades of life have expressed their views on the working, personality, handwork, knowledge, experience, contributions, commitment to his mission of Dr Ambedkar to eulogized Doctor’s services to different fields. Dr. Ambedkar passed away in his sleep at 26 Alipore roads New Delhi on 6th of December 1956 and was cremated at Dadar Hindu Crematorium Bombay). Over five lac devotees witnessed the last rites and over one lac embraced Buddhism. The pyre was lit by his only son Yashwantrao Ambedkar at 7.30 pm.
                          One of the major contributions of Dr. Ambedkar was to give fight to change the age old system of the Hindus to deny major chunk of their co- followers called the untouchables or Dalits, the right to have better prospects in the education social, economical, religious & political fields. By dint of his hard labour Dr. Ambedkar proved that given proper helping circumstances any body can excel in all fields including education irrespective of one’s caste, creed, religion, faith, sex or place of birth.. It was the partial treatment in the Hindu society which resulted in giving poverty to the Dalits and administrative rod to the Upper Castes. SO all human right to Dalits as to have equal opportunities for education, religion, economical & social status in the society were denied   .   He advised the society to encourage girl education & family planning to boost all out progress of the society. He introduced in the Parliament on 5th February 1951 The Hindu Code bill, which was opposed by many including the Hindu Mahasabha & other orthodox Hindus As Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee Dr, Ambedkar granted equal fundamental rights, including equal wages for equal work, equality before Law to all citizen   irrespective of caste, creed, race, sex, religion or place of birth.  His single handed efforts routed out by law the stigma of untouchability in the Hindu religion, although it is yet clinging the orthodox Hindus in a big way even after five decades of enactment of Law to ban it in all its forms..  He brought back Buddha to India when he embraced Buddhism on 14 th   October 1956 along with over three lacs of men & women. Dr. Ambedkar lived for 22 days after conversion to Buddhism and during this small period over Five Lacs Dalits got converted to their original faith. Dr Ambedkar while being Messiah to Dalits  was also an  Indian to the core.
          Keeping in view Dr. Ambedkar,s services for the betterment of his country& his peoples. His services have been praised world over. 
           R. A. Seligman, Dr. Ambedkar‘s teacher while commenting on the thesis “Evolution of Provincial Finances in British India,” which earned PhD to Ambedkar remarked “Nowhere to my knowledge, has such a detailed study of the underlying principles been made.”
       His Highness, Chhaterpati Sahuji Maharaj of Kohlapur State, Remarked, while addressing the conference of untouchables, Presided over by Dr, Ambedkar on 21 st March, 1920 “you have found your savior in Ambedkar. I am confident he will break your sickles. Not only that, a time will come when, so whispers my conscience, Ambedkar will shine as a front rank leader of all India fame & appeal,”
      His highness Gakward,  the Maharaja of Bikaner ;-Who scholarshiped Ambedkar’s education in USA )  after listening Dr. Ambedkar’s speech in Ist Round Table Conference said to his queen “Their efforts & money they had spent on the speaker of the day ( Ambedkar ) were all realized. It was an achievement, a glorious success The Maharaja was full of admiration, satisfaction and high appreciations with tears of joy in his eyes for Dr. Ambedkar.The Maharaja hosted a special dinner to Honour Dr Ambedkar.                                                                                                                                  
       Mahatama Gandhi in a speech   (Out side II R Table Conference) said “I have the highest regards for Dr. Ambedkar. He has every right to be bitter. That he does not break our heads is an act of self- restraint on his part. He is today so much saturated with suspicion that he can not see anything else. He sees in every Hindu a determined opponent of the Untouchables and it is quite natural. The same thing happened to my in my early days in South Africa ...”
       Shri T.T. Krishanamachari, a colleague of his in the Drafting Committee, while commenting on   work of the Chairman, said “The House is perhaps aware that of the seven members nominated by you, one had reigned from the House and was never replaced One had died & wasn’t replaced. One was away in America & his place was not filled up, and another person was engaged in state affairs, & there was a void to that extent. One or two people were far away from Delhi and perhaps reasons of health did not permit them to attend. So it happened ultimately that the burden of drafting this Constitution fell upon Dr. Ambedkar and I have no doubt that we are grateful to him for having achieved this task in a manner which is undoubtedly commendable.”
        Shri K. R. Narayanan former President of India said “Dr. Ambedkar had faith in the Constitution that he helped to fashion for India.
         He visualized democracy as the Golden Means.”
      Sri Sharad Pawar Former chief Minister of Maharastra, now Union Minister said” Dr. Ambedkar and Constitution have become synonymous.”
                      On death of Dr Ambedkar world over rich tributes were paid.
     U. Nu. The Primer of Burma said “Dr. Ambedkar was without dispute one of the illustrious figures that played a historic part in the annals of the great country India, at a time when changing trends and Conditions were making significant impression on the life & social structure of the nation. He was one of those who helped accelerated process of the social change in the country, a process in the case of which hundreds of thousands, even millions had been enabled to look forward to a better life and a happier life.”
      Veer Savarkas , a sworn enemy of British said “India has lost in Dr. Ambedkar a true great man.”
         Dr Rajindra Prasad the President of India said “Ambedkar was the Architect of our Constitution and his services in various capacities, particularly for the upliftment of the Depressed Classes, could not be exaggerated.”
        C. Rajagopalachari said “-  ... -Ambedkar was a thoroughly upright person and a man with keen jurist sense, a proud and irreconcilable heart, a great learning and when approached in the right spirit, a full of friendliness. Such a one has found peace after life’s fit full work.”

Danajay Keer a biographer of Dr. Ambedkar wrote “To visit Dr.Ambedkar, was to visit a speaking museum.”
       In the end I may quote from the saying of Baba Saheb Ambedkar’s views on Economic Progress and a word of guidance /  warning to his community & countrymen:-

 The good things of this earth do not fall from heaven. Every progress has it bill of costs and only those who pay for it will have that progress.                                       

Dr. Ambedkar and Women Empowerment


 Historical Back ground of enslaving Women:-
                    Considering sacrifices, sufferings & contribution of women for the welfare of the family, in the early times of human history, the families were Matriarchal (mother as head of the family).Although woman was not weaker than man, during menstruation, pregnancy & child birth she had to depend upon man., who subsequently enslaved her and society took the form of “Patriarchal” (Father as Ruler & Head of family). Still woman continued to enjoy authority & respect in the family. This continued in the Vedic Period, and women continued enjoying equal rights as men with liberty to choose their husbands in open “Sayambars” The respect enjoyed by woman of that time   could be gauged from the verse” Yater Nariasye Pujante, Ramte Tater Devita (God  reside at places where women are worshiped)” No religious ceremony by man was complete without participation of his wife and Rama had to get statue of Sita made to carry on with ceremonies for Ashawmegh Yagna. But process of down grading & enslaving woman had set in. Rishi ( Hermit )Gotama’s wife  Ahalya’s chastity was out raged by “Moon,Indra and August Rishi” by deceit. Gotama instead of getting  punishing or at least protesting the action against wrong doers, he cursed his wife  by get her converted to a stone for long time. This shows that  even enlightened persons showed little concerns for the females.
          Enslaving of women started in the later Vedic period, when Hindu Law Givers like Manu although, he too was born out of a mother ( woman ) , codified   in his book Manu Smiriti as” It is the very nature of woman to corrupt men Verse 2(213 ) ; woman has no right to acquire property Verse  8 (416 ); Rules  like  serving husbands faithfully even, if he is devoid of any good qualities verse 154 (5); a girl, a young woman, or  even an old woman should not do anything independently, even in her  own house.Verse147 (5). A  widow should be long suffering, until death, self restrained, and chaste( Abstain re marring ) verse158 (5)” She should obey her husband while he is alive and not violate her vow to him when he is dead151(5)   Shankara charya of Kerela ( 9th Century AD ) proclaimed “A woman is a sure gate of  hell & she is poison in the disguise of nectar”. In India  so called Golden rule Of Gupta  dynasty kings proved   worst period for women, when  Brahminical Rules  & dogmas ,codified against women were got strictly enforced . The system started for keeping unmarried girls/ women in temples “Dev- Dassies”  for the service including sexual abuse  by the priest in the name of God . Polygamy, Child marriage, illiteracy for women and discrimination on Sex, besides caste creed became order of the day.
           In  Ramchariter Manas  Goswami Tulsi  Das Says in Arandkand salok 9 “ No body can be as vile as a woman ,who for a moment’s enjoyment, does not  understand the pains of   hundreds of births ”  In Saloka 5 he further says “ A woman is impure from her birth”. In Balkanda ( sloka 57-A) Tulsi writes that a woman is silly and stupid by nature. Even Muslim religion advocates strict rules for women to remain in Parda (veil). In recent past a writer summed up the plight of women in his song” Aurat Ne Janam Diya Mardon Ko, Mardon  Ne usse Bazar Diya.  (Woman gives birth to man, but man puts her in Prostitution centre)”.
     Modern Challengers:---Keeping in view un-natural law enforcing by men duly sanctified with discimatory religious sanctions against women, besides Dr. Ambedkar, many saints like Guru Nanak, Kabir, Ravidas & social reformers like Swami Vivekananda. Dayananda, Raja ram Mohan Roy,  Periyar E.V. Ramaswami, Mahatama Jyotiba phuley raised their forceful  voices  in favour of women be given equality in status and opportunities with man. Ever condemned British Rule in India came to rescue of Indian women in a big way, as it banned Sati System on the insistence of  Raja Ram Mohan Roy . Matama Jyotirba Phule  and his wife revered Mata Savitribhai Phule opened 18 schools for girls in Pune  starting from ever first school for girls on 1-1-1848, and adopted son born to a  Brahmin widow as their heir  against strict opposition from Hindu clergies.  Till half a centaury ago the girl child was buried alive by some Upper Caste Hindus. Honour killing to suppress female persons to marry as per their choice continues despite existing laws to the contrary. Out of the 20 Congress women MPs( Total Women members 37) in the 1991-­1996 Lok Sabha, none was a Cabinet minister.
          Rise of Ambedkar: - With the rise of Polar Star from tatters in Marashtra , named Dr BR Ambedkar
(1891-1956 ) women got their  real emancipator .The Manusmiriti was burnt in full public view by Dr Ambedkar on 25th December 1927, thus  he blew  bugle of fight against discrimination and exploitation on the basis of one’s caste, creed , sex or place of birth. His principle of life was to speak, work & fight for the just cause of oppressed, depressed, exploited, illiterates, ill fed & ill treated men & women irrespective of their caste or social status, place of birth affiliations and without caring for his personnel life discomforts. Till then woman was considered lowest of the low in the Indian society, so he fought a very difficult battle for their cause.  On March 19 & 20, 1927 he addressed a huge meeting of depressed classes, including women, and gave strong call for liberation of women. He advised them to attend more to their development of mind and the spirit of self help; He said that education was as necessary for development of women as was for men. He declared “As you are, so shall be your children”. While addressing largely attended Depressed Classes   Women conference on 18-/9 July 1942, he said, “He measured the progress of a community by the degree of progress made by the women of that community.  He advised, let every girl who marries, stand by her husband, claim to be her husband’s friend and equal and refuse to be his slave. He advocated avoiding early marriage and producing too many children. Give proper education to your children, so that they live a dignified life”.  Dr Ambedkar advocated for equal wages for equal work without discrimination on the basis of sex or caste, besides grant of paid maternity leave to expecting mothers. While strongly supporting proposed maternity benefits to women in Bombay Legislative Council in 1928 he said “---- it is in the interest of the Nation that the mother ought to get a certain amount of rest during the pre-natal period and also subsequently”
    Constitutional Provisions: -     Baba Sahib Dr. Ambedkar worked with, dedication, zeal & conviction for the betterment of women on becoming Chairman Of Constitution Drafting Committee & First Law Minister of Independent Indian. He gave India a living& organic Constitution, enshrining in it all those conditions which are necessary to promote fraternity among all citizens of free India, including women.. Discrimination on the basis of caste, religion, sex, creed, place of birth was codified as illegal acts under the Statute Book.  The Indian Constitution  provides for Equality before Law( Art.14 ) , the State shall not discriminate any citizen on the grounds  of , religion, caste, race, sex , place of birth or any of them ( Art 15 ), equal opportunities to all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment under the State ( Art16 ), equal pay to all for equal work for both men & women( Art.39d ) right to work , to education and public assistance in certain cases  ( Art 41 ), Provision of  just and human conditions  of work and maternity relief (Art 42) ,  Provision of uniform Civil Code to all the citizens throughout the Indian Territory (Art 44). Dr. Ambedkar by his scholarly arguments in framing/ debating Indian Constitution get put his seal of equality for women by getting them right of vote to equalize her position in running the State affairs.
               Hindu Code Bill:-  To strike last nail in the coffin of discrimination against Indian women ,
Dr Ambedkar raised a new battle cry by finally submitting modified and revised Hindu Code bill to Constituent assembly in October 1948, which was under consideration since 1941 this gave a great shock to the reactionary opponents.   But elite persons supported it as Justice Gajenderagadkar, an imminent Sanskrit Scholar, jurist & Judge of the Bombay High Court said, “If Dr Ambedkar gives us Hindu Code Bill, his achievement would go down in history as a very eloquent piece of poetic justice indeed”. The discussion on this historic Bill  by  the Modern Manu began on Feb.5, 1951 in the Parliament and continued for three days, when its consideration was  postponed to next session in Sept. , 1951. Pt Nehru promised for the passage of the Bill and said that, if, the Hindu Code bill was not passed he along with his Cabinet of Ministers shall resign. But it is reported that even Dr Rajindra Prasad (Then President of India), a devote Brahmin, said, that, if, the Bill was passed he shall resign. Patel was not in favour of even its consideration, not to speak of passing of the Hindu Code Bill. It was decided by the Congress Party to take it up on Sept., 17, 1951, but only the first part of the Bill “Marriage & Divorce” and other clauses to be taken later. Elaborate security arrangements were made in & around Parliament, as opponents of the Bill, were gearing up for trouble.  During discussion Dr.  Shayama Prashad Mookerjee said “The Hindu Code Bill would shatter the magnificent structure of Hindu culture---.”  The tactics of long speeches to delay the passage of the Bill was resorted to by the members opposed to the Bill.  All objections raised against the Bill, during debates were replied ably by the Law Minister, but even the” Marriage & Divorce”   Bill could not be completed, and the rest of the Hindu Code Bill was never taken up. The Hindu Code Bill was let down in the tragic manner and in the words of Dr. Ambedkar “It was killed and buried, unwept and unsung after four clauses were passed”. Even Nehru did not honor his word of full support for passage of the Bill.   The four clauses of the Bill, which were adopted by the House on 25 Sept, 1951, strengthened the position of the women in the society.  The four clauses passed were incorporated in the Hindu Code Bill, these were
I)                     The Hindu marriage Act,1955
II)                    The Hindu succession Act,1956
III)                   The Hindu Minority and guardianship Act1956
IV)                    The adoption & maintenance Act 1956
       The First Union Law Minister was disappointed due to non passage of the Hindu Code Bill, as was conceived by him and promised support by Pt. Nehru. So Dr Ambedkar created history of sorts in sacrificing his Cabinet Law Ministry for the just  cause of women  by resigning on Sept., 27, 1951 as a matter of protest. An example  of supreme sacrifice for women  liberation was created in not only Indian but world history. Although Dr Ambedkar could not succeed in getting passed the full Hindu Code Bill, he successfully put the ball rolling & laid the foundation of equality for the women of India in all spheres of life. Women can now have custody of child, no marriage before age of 18 years, Provision of alimony (maintenance allowance from husband on getting legally separation) ), Widow can now  adopt a child, rights over parental property , a uniform scheme for succession to the property of a Hindu female who dies intestate ( not having made a will ), Mother can change  guardian of minor  by will, and many more rights due to the relentless efforts of Dr Ambedkar. Due to Dr. Ambedkar efforts the women are now holding high positions of authority  in all fields including, Engineering, Medical, Education including Higher Education; Army, Air Force, Aviation, Navy. Police, Administration. Politics; Foreign Services, Industry & Trade. India was proud to send in Space Indian Woman Kalpana Chawla. Installing Miss Mayawati a Dalit woman as Chief Minister besides other women CM’s, Mrs Indra Gandhi as Prime Minister of India & now Her Excellency Madam Pratibha Singh Patil is President of Indian Union as per the equal rights granted by our Constitution. Madam Sonia Gandhi is chairperson of one of the ruling   National Parties, Madam J. Jayalalithaaa,madam  Mamta Bhennerji are the proud Chief Ministers in India, where at one time woman was equated with the man’s shoe. With the proposed amendment to Art.243-D of Indian Constitution, India shall have 50 percent share of women in Panchayati Raj with nearly ten lacs and forty thousands women force. Already 15th Lok Sabha have 59 Women members( 10.82%), which shall be raised three fold in the next  Parliament with the passing of the  proposed Women’s Reservation Bill, for which ruling party is committed . However adequate representation to deprived castes women in Parliament and other elected bodies is a distant dream. Dalit women are suffering on two fronts of castes and sex.

        Still religiously dominated India did not permit Mrs. Indra Gandhi, the only child of Pt Nehru, to lit pyre of her father,  as such acts are solely reserved for men only. Madam Savitribai Phuley(1830-1897) dared to lit the Pyre of her husband against all opposition from religious orthodox ,as their  heir son, being an adopted one was also not  religiously qualified to do .  It a matter of concern that a handful orthodox  , are still glorifying the illegal act like Sati ,  favoring child marriage, Parading naked,  Dalit women in full public view  for minor crimes , advocating opening of Girl-  Dance Bars .Still curse of killing of girl child in the mother’s womb is continuing unabated despite strict rules against this inhuman act. This has reduced the population of the girls in India greatly and it needs to be curved with strong hand.
             It may be noted that Dr. Ambedkar was not against Religions, he was against un-religious acts in the name of religion, by the orthodox clergies and he always opposed the unreligious act of differentiating between humans (woman & Child included) on the basis of castes, sects, sex, color or place/ status at birth.   Dr. Ambedkar said “If God does not recognize man or woman by caste or place of birth, the man made Orthodox and superstitious religions cannot/ should not do so .” 
       Dr. Ambedkar’s heart can be read for women welfare from his following saying “Unity is meaningless with out the accompaniment of women. Education is fruitless without educated women, and agitation is incomplete without the strength of women”.                                                                                                         

 1) Ambedkar and social Justice vol. II ( MO I & B; GOI 1992 )
2) Dr Ambedkar His Life & Mission By DHANJAY KEER, Popular Prakashan Bombay
3) B. R. Ambedkar By W. N. Kuber ( MO I& B GOI  Series Builder Of Mordrn India 1990)
4) Br Ambedkar Chintan Aur Vichar (Hindi) By Dr Rajindermohan Bhatnagar Jagat Ram & sons New Delhi 1994
4) The Laws Of Manu Penguin Books India Pvt Ltd New Delhi 1991
5) The Constitution Of India by PM Bakshi 1999.
6 ) Ramchriter Manas by Goswami Tulsidas             Gita Press Gorakhpur
           7.Hindu Samaj Ke Pathbharasdhtak Tulsidas Ed. Vishawa Nath N.Delhi-01( ISBN:-81-85679-19-3, 14th Edition