Tuesday, January 30, 2018

January Month in Dalit History ( Revised and Enlarged )

                                          January Month  in Dalit History ( Revised and Enlarged )
             January the first month of year  in Christian Era  has  stored many memories of the Dalit History. The following are a few such             memorable days of January which carry special significance for Dalits.
 1st Of January
1-1-1818          Bhima Koregaon Vijay Divas
                         This battle took place on January 1st, 1818, near the banks of Bhima River in Koregaon (north-west of Pune) between few hundred(just 500 of them) Mahar soldiers from the British regiment of a Bombay Native Light Infantry and the Peshwa army that constituted 20,000 horsemen and 8,000 infantry soldiers. After marching down for more than 27 miles, from Shirur to Bhima Koregaon without food and water, the untouchable warriors fought the Peshwas army for next 12 hours and by the end of the day defeated them completely. It was an attempt by the untouchables of Maharashtra to break the shackles of the age-old caste order. The saga of the bravery of Mahar soldiers was commemorated by the British in 1851, when they erected a Pillar (Vijay Stambh) at Koregaon inscribing the names of 22 Mahar soldiers who were martyred in this battle. The pillar still stands today reminding all of us about the bravery of our forefathers and as an inspiration for our struggle against caste-system. Baba Saheb Dr.B.R.Ambedkar used to visit Koregaon every year on 1st January to pay homage to the untouchable soldiers and to exhort Dalits to show similar courage and determination to end Brahminism from the entire country. On 1st January, 1927, he organised a big convention in Koregaon and brought the memories of bravery of the untouchable soldiers in public knowledge.  Baba Saheb was against Brahminical thinking based on the division of labourers in the disguise of division of labour.
1st Jan. 1848,
        India’s ever first school for girls was started at Bhide Wada in Poona ( NowPune) by Mahatma Jotiba  Phule and Savitribai Phule. The untouchables ( Now named as OBCs,SCs,STs) were made cautious to get education Education the third eye (Tisra Netar) of humen .Jyotirao Phuley proclaimed that lack of education to untouchables resulted in lack of intellect, lack of intellect  resulted in lack of motion which in turn resulted in lack of finances and lack of finances spoiled the life of untouchables. So the lack of single factor of education made the lives of untouchables   miserable. He said the remedy of it lies in getting educated.
 January, 1908.    
                 Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar became first Mahar who passed his Matriculation  Examination in 1907 making a history of sorts for  his community. This event was celebrated in January 1908 by organising a meeting to honour Ambedkar under the president ship of a social activist and politician S.K.Bhole, who was Brahmin by caste. Also present in the ceremony was  a teacher ,Marathi writer, social reformer Krishanaji Arjun Leluskar. Krishanaji Arjun Keluskar(1860-1934) alias Dada was assistant teacher in Wilson High School. He had met Ambedkar by chance in a garden where he used to go for  an evening walk .One day he saw Ambedkar reading under a light pole and was impressed by his keenness to his  studies. There after Krishanaji Arjun Keluskar tried to help Ambedkar in all possible means like lending him books. He presented Ambedkar in the function his book “  Life Of Gautam Buddha”. This book was read by Ambedkar with keen interests and it became a source  of inspiration for him to embrace Buddhism on 14 Oct.1956. When Ambedkar was in his intermediate class his father was unable to support his studies, so Ambedkar was in a dilemma  what to do. Again Krishanaji Arjun Keluskar appeared on scene from somewhere as God gift. On Ambedkar’s narration good hearted Krishanaji Arjun Keluskar went to Maharaja Baroda, Sir Sayajirao Gaekwad III (11 March 1863 – 6 February 1939) to help Ambedkar in his studies. Mahajra Baroda interviewed Ambedkar  and found him not only intelligent but also keen to study further. Maharaja Baroda sanctioned Rs.25 per month scholarship so Ambedkar continued his studies and passed his BA Examination in 1912. Again he was Maharashtra’s first untouchable to pass BA. After the death of his father Subedar Major Ramji  Maloji Sakhpal on 2nd February, 1913, Ambedkar lost his all hopes of further studies. Again per chance Ambedkar met  Krishanaji Arjun Keluskar and explained him his mind to study further  but had no money or moral support. Krishanaji Arjun Keluskar arranged a meeting of Ambedkar with Maharaja Baroda to request him to help Ambedkar. Kind hearted Maharaja had to send four students to foreign universities for  higher studies giving them scholarship. Maharaja Sahib asked Ambedkar to apply. Ambedkar applied and was lucky to be  selected one of the four students. Ambedkar left for Columbia on June 4,1913 and returned as Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. His studies in the foreign land equipped his well to cut the slavery chains of his brethren at home.
1 -1- 1918     Madam Dani Shantabai  was born
                      She was a Mahar Republican leader who was born  in  a hut on out skirts of Nasik in Maharashtra, on 1st January 1918 to revered Shri Dhanaji Dani. Her father was a devotional religious singer. To earn his livelihood he was engaged as the milk seller and owned  twelve buffalos. Miss Dani Shantabai as a child was brought in a poise religious atmosphere. She was teacher by profession and passed her teacher’s training examination from Nasik. After passing her matriculation from Pune she got the job of a teacher in Vinchur school of Nasik district in Maharashtra.  Since she was engrossed in social work for the  upliftment of her Dalit Samaj, so she resigned from her job and became a whole timer social activist.  For devoting her full time for the Dalit uplift she did not marry.  In Pune she came in contact with Dada sahib Gaikwad (15 October 1902- 29 December 1971) a committed activist of the Scheduled Caste Federation (SCF). B.K. Gaikwad took her to Dr. Ambedkar. She was so influenced by the work of both these Dalit emancipators along with their team that she joined SFC on the day of its formation at Nagpur on 18-19 July, 1942 by Dr. Ambedkar.  Due to her dedication and commitment for the upliftment of the Dalits, in 1943 she was elected as President of SCF Nasik district unit. She was among the members of RPI (The Republican Party of India) when this party was launched on 3rd November, 1957after the death of Dr. Ambedkar. Her mentor Dada Sahib B.K. Gaikwad was made president of the new political party. She also participated in the second conference of SCF at Kanpur in 1945 and got the unique honor of presiding over the SCF Women’s conference held there at the same time. She accompanied P.N. Rajbhoj to Raipur to bring Satnami Dalits to main stream of Dalit empowerment movement. But being misunderstood both were arrested as agents of Nizam of Hyderabad. Both were lodged in Jabalpur jail for three months. She was also jailed  in Yarwada  jail Pune in 1946 for leading a black flag demonstration against Poona Pact( 1932).
        In her long association with Dalit leaders, Dr. Ambedkar, P.N. Rajbhoj, Madam N.Shivraj, Dada Sahib B.K Gaikwad, Mrs Gitabai B.Gaikwad, Dada Sahib Roham, Sh. Lalingkar, Miss Londhe, she did a remarkable work for the empowerment of the Dalits. She got converted to Buddhism along with others in 1956 and propagated it in Maharashtra. She passed away in 2001 at an age of 83 years. Her life was a saga of journey of struggle for those whom even God ignored.  She shall be long remembered for struggle to achieve goals of Dalit empowerment.
  1-1-1979           Mandal Commission was formed-
                   Brief History of Mandal Commission appointment,work and hurdles
Baba Saheb Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar the father of the Indian Constitution had made provisions for the welfare of the OBCs , SCs, STs or elsewhere Shudras as continuous process under Article 340,341,342 besides other safe guards. 
Art.340 made provision for Appointment of a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes
(1) The President may by order appoint a Commission consisting of such persons as he thinks fit to investigate the conditions of socially and educationally backward classes within the territory of India and the difficulties under which they labour and to make recommendations as to the steps that should be taken by the Union or any State to remove such difficulties and to improve their condition and as to the grants that should be made for the purpose by the Union or any State the conditions subject to which such grants should be made, and the order appointing such Commission shall define the procedure to be followed by the Commission
(2) A Commission so appointed shall investigate the matters referred to them and present to the President a report setting out the facts as found by them and making such recommendations as they think proper
(3) The President shall cause a copy of the report so presented together with a memorandum explaining the action taken thereon to be laid before each House of Parliament.
When the then President Of India Dr. Rajindra Prashad did not take action Under Art.340 to appoint a commission Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar resigned as a protest from the Union Cabinet as Law Minister on September 29, 1951 with the following points as the cause of his disappointment and worries.
1) Nehru did not allocate him the post of vice president in Planning department.
(2) Non-appointment of commission for OBC as per Article 340.
(3) Nehru’s defective foreign policy..
(4) Hindu Code Bill.
Baba Sahib made a supreme sacrifice for the welfare of the Indian women and OBCs the yester years Shudras. 
Now the government was left with no option but to appoint a Commission under Art.340 of the Constitution of India to arrest open criticism. So the First Backward Classes Commission was set up by a presidential order on 29 January 1953 under the chairmanship of Kaka Kalelkar. But its finding were never brought before the parliament so were lost in oblivion. The public resent for the re-appointment of the Commission under Art.340 continued inside and out side Parliament. Finally the Mandal Commission, or the Second Backward Classes Commission was established in India on       1st  January 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to "Identify the socially or educationally backward classes" of India. It was set up by a Presidential Order (Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes in India every 10 years) for the purpose of Articles 15 (Prohibition of Discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth) and 16 (Equality of opportunity in public employment). The commission should have been instituted immediately after adoption of the Constitution 26 January,1950 but was delayed for over 19 years. Although Kaka Kalerkar Commission was appointed but its recommendations never saw the sun light due to fear of high caste leaders, who never wanted to empower the Dalits including OBCs for fear of sharing government authority. Hindus have never learnt to share as they take all others inferiors to them and take them as their God designated servants and menial workers. 
Mandal Commission was headed by B.P. Mandal an Indian parliamentarian from Bihar, to consider the question of reservations for people to redress caste discrimination, and used eleven social, economic, and educational indicators to determine backwardness. It had five members, four were from the OBCs; one, L.R. Naik, was the only member from the scheduled castes in the Commission  L.R. Naik later declined to sign the Mandal Commission Report. In 1980, the Commission's report upheld the affirmative action practice under Indian law by recommending that members of Other Backward Classes (OBC) be granted reservations to 27 per cent of jobs under the Central government and public sector undertakings. as the total reservation was not to cross 50% mark as per SC of India ruling although . However presently in Tamil Nadu, reservation works out to somewhat less than 69%. The Mandal commission estimated that 52% of the total population (excluding SCs and STs but including non Hindu castes), belonging to 3,743 ( It rose to 5,013 by 2006 with exclusion from many UT’s ) different castes and communities, were ‘backward’. After being neglected for 10 years, the Report was accepted by the National Front government led by V.P. Singh. On August 7 1990, the National Front government declared that it would provide 27 per cent reservations to "socially and educationally backward classes" for jobs in central services and public undertaking. Having released the Government Order on 13 August, V.P. Singh announced its legal implementation in his Independence Day speech two days later. The anti Mandal forces joined hands against the report and the criticism was sharp and colleges across the country held massive protests against it. The upper castes had never upheld the principle of Sharing the natural resources with poor and down trodden Indian masses. On 19th September 1990, Rajiv Goswami, a student of Deshbandhu College, Delhi, committed self-immolation in protest of the government's actions. His act made him the face of the Anti-Mandal agitation which spread to other parts of North India, with Southern Indian remained mostly calm.
A writ was preferred in the SC in September 1990 praying that caste cannot be taken as an indicator of backwardness and the court stayed the implementation of the Govt. Order. till final verdict is announced. The Constitutional Bench of SC consisting of five judges On 16 November 1992, verdict, upheld the government order, being of the opinion that caste was an acceptable indicator of backwardness. In a writ petition The term creamy layer was introduced by the Sattanathan Commission in 1971( Tamil- Nadu).Again in State of Kerala v/s NM Thomas case the term creamy layer was coined by Justice Krishna Iyer in 1975 wherein he observed that the benefits of reservation are snatched away by the top creamy layer of the 'backward' caste or class., The income limit of creamy layer determination has been changed from time to time. The National Commission for Backward Classes was set up after concurrence of the President of India on 2nd April, 1993 but unfortunately J&K State remains excluded from the jurisdiction of the NCBC courtesy Art 370.
Granting constitutional status to the National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) was still a dream caught in the government apathy tangle. 
            Revolutionary  Mata Savitribai Phuley  the first woman teacher in  India was born on this day.
                       She broke the age old practice of denying education to womenfolk by Brahminical thought.  Under the guidance of her husband she took to teaching and so opened on 1st January 1848 first ever school for girls in Pune facing orthodox Hindu ordeal.They opened 18 schools  some co education. They also opened first ever orphanage to help sexually exploited  widows and cared their illegitimate children. She passed away  on  March 10, 1897.
5-1-1905                           Dr.Bhadant Anand Koshalayan Jyanti
                         Dr. Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan was a Buddhist monk, Scholar, Traveller and a prolific writer from India. He is considered as one of the great activists of Buddhism of the 20th century. He was influenced by Great Buddhist Scholar, Social Reformer Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan and Dr. Ambedkar. He  was born Harnam Das on January 5, 1905 in Sohana Village of Ambala District in Punjab. He did B.A from National College in Lahore. His travels took him to different parts of World for promoting Buddhism just like his mentor Mahapandit Rahul Sankrityayan. He devoted his full life to serve Buddhism. He always wanted to have experience of traveling far distances across many countries and discover new things. His aim was to continue the tradition started by his inspirations.He contributed a lot to Indian Travel Literature and Hindi. He loved Hindi as a child loves his mother and supported it in many ways. He worked for Hindi Sahitya Sammelan, Prayag, Rastrabhasha Prachar Samiti, Vardha etc.
               Dr. Ambedkar lost Parliamentary election from Bombay. He was defeated by congress party  candidate Narayan Kajrolkar, as congress party never wanted Dr.Ambekar to succeed in his mission. Narayan Kajrolkar a Marathi by birth  but Mahar by caste, had served as a personal assistant to Dr. Ambedkar before contesting against him in the first Lok Sabha elections from the Mumbai North Central constituency in 1952 and defeated Dr.Ambedkar by over 15000 votes .
6-01-1904      Babu L.N.Hardas Jyanti            
      Hardas Laxmanrao Nagrale (6th January 1904– 12th January 1939), popularly known as Babu L.N. Hardas.was a Dalit leader and social reformer in India. He was an ardent follower of Dr. Ambedkar and was pioneer of the practice of exchanging the greeting Jai Bhim amongst the Dalits. He was also a prominent labour leader in the Central Province and was the general secretary of the Independent Labour Party in the province.
6 January 1929:  -   First All Assam Depressed Classes Conference.
            The conference was presided by Rai Saheb Senapati Sonadhar Das. The conference raised the    demand for separate electorate for the Depressed Classes.
6 -01-1939:        Dr. Ambedkar addressed a big meeting of agriculturists at Mahad (Raigad district of Maharashtra) where he impressed upon the audience that the Congress Ministry had failed to mitigate their woes.
He said that the Premier Kher (Pirme Minister of Bombay) was simply a figure head; and he described the other Ministers of the Provincial Government as dogs at the door of Sardar Patel. Referring to the boastful statement of Sardar Patel, which he had made at a reception given to Kher in Gujarat, to the effect that they welcomed Kher as a devotee of Gandhi and not as Premier Kher, otherwise thet would have sent him back unceremoniously, Dr. Ambedkar said that he would wreak vengeance on Patel for this dire insult inflicted upon a Maharashtrian. If Patel dared insult him in this manner, he added, he would thrash him. This was no a soliloquy; this was a public speech! It was a natural outburst of anger sprung from a strong mind which was consitenet with its contempt for the Congress leaders’ rude mentality, and determinied to show its superiority. The above outburst is also a sequale to the immediate past incidents. In September 1938, the Industrial Disputes Bill was taken up by the Bombay Legislative Assembly. Dr. Ambedkar and Jamnadas Mehta opposed the Bill tooth and nail. Ambedkar described Bill as bad, bloody and bloodthirsty inasmuch as it made a strike under certain circumstances illegal and affected the right of the labourer to strike. Ambedkar stated that according to him strike was a civil wrong and not a crime, and making a man serve against his will was nothing less than making him a slave. He continued that the Bill ought to have been called ‘the Worker’ “Civil Liberties Suspension Act”. Ambedkar then teased the Government by saying that it was a Government, which claimed to be elected on labour votes; but it did not stand by its election pledges. It was a democracy, he added, that was enslaving the working class, and therefore it was a mockery of democracy. But the Congress Ministry was determined to pass the Bill, which they ultimately did despite massive rally at Kamgar Maidan (on 6 & 7 November) and strike (on 7 November) were organized by Independent Labour Party. Also on 25 December, Swami Sahajanand, the Peasant leader from Uttar Pradesh, saw Dr. Ambedkar at his residence in Bombay and had a talk with him about the labour problem in Bombay and the agrarian reforms in general. He tried to persuade Ambedkar to join the Congress to form a united front against imperialism.
6 -01-1940:     Periyar met Dr. Ambedkar in Mumbai.
                    By 10.00 a.m, Periyar arrived at Dadar station with his colleagues (Justice T. A. V. Nathan, P. Balasubramaniam – Editor of Sunday observer, the mouth piece of Justice Party, C. A. Annadurai, the General Secretary of Justice Party, T. P. S. Ponnappan and C. Panjatcharam). He was given a reception and taken by a decorated coach fitted with two white horses! Evening, he met Dr. Ambedkar and latter took the former to his residence. Both discussed on various social and political issues from 9.00 to 10.30 p.m.
6 January 1949:    Dr. Ambedkar wrote to Pune Collector to purchase land to set up a University inTalegaon
                               The Pune Mirror newspaper dated 4 August 2011reported:
 Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar’s dream of setting up a university in Talegaon remains unfulfilled to this day. Inspired by the universities of Nalanda and Takshila, Dr, Ambedkar had bought 87 acres of land and a bungalow at Talegaon and Wadgaon in Pune district of Maharashtra. Today, all that remains of the dream is one plot of land and the Vishwaratna Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Smarak Samiti is struggling to find enough land to build a memorial.
 “Ambedkar held meetings with Sant Gadge Baba and Acharya P K Atre in Talegaon. Ambedkar first purchased 65 acres of land at Harneshwar Tekdi at a price of Rs 16,000 and later, he purchased 22 acres at Wadgaon.”
6 January 2010:
        Public interest litigation from the All India Christian Federation (AICF) was filed with the Supreme Court of India seeking reservations for all Dalits irrespective of their religious faith.
The PIL (WP Civil # 579/2009) sought reservation for converted Dalits of all faiths on the same footing as extended to Scheduled Castes following Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
A Bench comprising Chief Justice K. G. Balakrishnan and Justice B. S. Chauhan issued a notice to the Ministry of Social Justice and Ministry of Minority Affairs for its response on the implementation of the recommendation of the National Commission for Religious and Linguistic Minorities (NCRLM) headed by former Chief Justice of India Rangnath Misra.
Senior advocate K. K. Venugopal and D. Vidyanandam submitted the recent statement by Minority Affairs Minister Salman Khurshid that the report of NCRLM was not made public and there was a difference between the manifesto of Congress party and the recommendation by the Commission was an attempt to defeat the claims of converts.
     Mr. Venugopal said the Centre had referred the NCRLM report to the National Commission for Scheduled Castes which also supported the reported recommendation for 15 per cent (10 per cent for Muslims and 5 per cent for others) reservation without disturbing 50 per cent ceiling set by the Supreme Court.
     The PIL said paragraph three of the Presidential order of 1950 under Article 341 of the Constitution, which empowers the President to specify Scheduled Castes, was coming in the way of extending the benefits of reservation to Dalit converts and was upheld by the NCRLM’s seven-member committee. It sought striking down of paragraph 3 of the Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order 1950 on the grounds that it is ultra vires of the Constitution. The NCRLM has prepared its report after visiting various states and among the terms of reference was to examine whether the Scheduled Caste converts suffer from social disabilities like untouchability even after embracing Christianity. The Ranganath Mishra Commission earlier declared that non-inclusion of Dalit Christians and Muslims in the SC ambit was a discrimination based on religion and goes against the Constitution of India. After a brief hearing, the Bench tagged the petition with other PILs on the issue which has been pending since 2004.The Centre had in January 2008 told the apex court that it would study the report of Misra commission which examined the issue of granting Scheduled Caste status to Dalit Christians for extending benefits of reservation to them.
     The NGO had also submitted that it was the right time that the court should strike down the order requiring all Dalits to belong to a particular religion if they were to avail the SC reservation benefits as it goes beyond the mandate of Article 341(1) and violates the fundamental rights guaranteed under the Constitution.
     All India United Christians Movement for Equal Rights, had said the Congress Government had in 1996 brought a Bill in Lok Sabha to amend para three of the “Constitution (Scheduled Castes) Order 1950” for extending reservation benefits to Dalit Christians. There are about 20 million dalit Christians.
     The PIL had claimed social standings of Dalits even after converting to Christianity has not changed and they have to face discrimination in churches also.
      The demand for granting Scheduled Castes status to the Dalit Christians has been opposed in several quarters, including the SC/ST Commission which contended that they cannot enjoy two rights – that is of minority and SCs.
     Citing a 2005 ruling of the apex court, in which it was said even if a tribal converted to Christianity, he or she could still avail reservation benefits as his/her status as ST remained unchanged, PIL had said the same law should be applicable to Dalits after their conversion.
7 Jan 1998:
         Manyawar Kanshi Ram addressed a conference of Dalits at the Roshan Ground at Hoshiarpur, Punjab
        Mr. Kanshi Ram, Bahujan Samaj Party supremo said that social transformation and ecomonic emancipation of Dalits could only be possible through power. Social justice alone was not required for Dalits. They could survive only if they shared power in the country, He said the main aim of his life was social and economic reforms of Dalits. He said that he had succeeded in uniting the Dalits and that was why a Dalit lady, Ms. Mayawati, became the Chief Minister of UP the largest state in the country. He said he would now concentrate on making a person from Gujjar community a Chief Minister of Rajasthan and an Adivasi a Chief Minister of Punjab. Mr. Romesh Dogra, Congress MLA from Dasuya, Mr. Naresh Thakur, former Deputy Speaker of the Punjab Vidhan Sabha and Mr. Ram Rattan, general secretary, District Congress Committee, Hoshiarpur shared also the dais with the BSP .
12-01-1598                                         Jijabai  Jyanti
                             Revered Jijabai was  the worthy mother of Shiva Ji the Great , founder of the Maratha Empire. Jijabai was born on January 12, 1598 as the daughter of Lakhojirao Jadhav of Deulgaon near Sindkhed in present-day Buldhana district of Maharashtra State. Her mother's name was Mhalsabai. As per the customs of that age, Jijabai was married at an early age to Shahaji Raje Bhonsle, son of Maloji Bhonsle of Verul village, a military commander serving under the Adil Shahi sultans of Bijapur Sultanate in present-day Karnataka. The wedding was held in Sindkhed on 5 Nov 1605, when Jijabai was eight years old; her husband was hardly twelve years old, and she was his first wife. As per custom, Jijabai remained with her parents for several years before joining her husband. Jijabai bore Shahaji as many as eight children, six daughters and two sons. All the daughters died in infancy and only the two sons, Sambhaji and Shivaji, reached adulthood. In 1630, three years after Shivaji's birth, Shahaji re-married  withTukabai, daughter of Sardar Bajirao Mohite Pongwadikar of Bijapur, who was Shahaji's close friend and, like him, also a commander serving the sultan of Bijapur. Jijabai was a very pious and intelligent woman with great vision for independent kingdom. She inspired Shivaji by telling stories from Ramayana, Mahabharata and Balaraja. Inspired by her, Shivaji took the Oath of Independence (SWARAJYA) in the fort temple of lord Raireshwar in 1645 when he was 17. In Shivaji's impeccable, spotless character and courage, Jijabai's contribution is enormous. She died soon after coronation of Shivaji on June 17, 1674. Shivaji was heartbroken by her death.
       Osmania University conferred on Dr. Ambedkar honorary D.Lit. Degree.

   Mangu Ram, Magowalia (14 January 1886 – 22 April 1980) known popularly as Babu Mangu Ram Chaudhry, was born in Muggowal, Hoshiarpur district.  An Indian Dalit  freedom fighter and politician from Punjab who founded of the Adi Dharmi Samaj( Religion of aboriginals) an organisation dedicated to attaining equality for Untouchables. He openly declared that Scheduled Castes are neither Hindu nor Sikh. They are also neither Muslim nor Christian. They are the original inhabitants of this ancient land called Bharat. Their real religion (Ad Dharm) was much older than Hinduism, Christianity, Islam and Sikhism. He immigrated to Amrica in 1909 where   he  became associated with the Ghadar Party. on his return to India in 1925, he became a leader of the low-caste( Untouchable,more so Ravidasias or Chamars. He organised his people  against the then existing system of hate on caste basis.  untouchability in the Hindus  for low caste people existed in a big way .,. He  succeeded in getting elected to the Punjab Legislative Assembly in 1946 and in 1952   . Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia’s movement was not only confined to Punjab. He stood like a rock with Dr. Ambedkar. During Dr. Ambedkar’s fight with Mr. MK Gandhi at the Roundtable Conferences in London (1930-32) Babu Mangu Ram Mugowalia Ji sent telegrams in support of the former as the leader of the untouchables in India against the latter (MK Gandhi). He got special rights from the Britishers by adding Ad Dharm to the Census list as a separate religion of the Depressed Classes in Punjab in 1931. He was instrument in the winning  7 out of all the 8 reserved seats in Punjab  by the Ad-Dharma of the Depressed class people. Babu Ji also became the pioneer of seeking political power as a key to all the problems of the community .In 1946, Babu Mangu  Ram Mugowalia was elected to the Punjab Legislative Assembly and remained in legislature till 1952. He was awarded  freedom fighter pension  in recognition as freedom fighter for Indian Independence. The award was given to him by Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi  in 1972. He was He passed away on 22nd April,1980
15th January 1907 
         Roham , Prabhakar Janardan (1905-1991) was born on 15th January 1907 Shri Prabhakar Janadhan (PJ) Roham an agriculturist Mahar was born on 15th January 1907 at Akole, Ahmednagar district of Maharashtra. He had studied at Nasik up to Matriculation. He was married to Shrimati Meerabali in 1931 and the couple was blessed with six sons and three daughters.  He was introduced to Dr Ambedkar by Dada Sahib BK Giakward and was inspired by Dr.  Baba Sahib Ambedkar’s Movement in 1927 for equality of status and opportunities.  PJ Roham took part in the famous Choudar Tank Satyagraha at Mahad in 1927and in Kalaram Temple entry Satyagraha at Nasikstarted on 3March 1930. In this temple entry Satyagraha besides Dr Ambedkar, Dada sahib Giakward, Subedar Ghatge, Amritrao Rankhambe and P.J. Rohan besides many Dalit leaders participated. He was imprisoned for two months for Satyagrahaa at Nasik He served as the General Secretary of the Youth League, Nasik from 1931 to 1934 When Shri Dadasaheb B.K.Gaikwad was imprisoned, PJ Roham was called upon to serve as the Secretary of the Nasik Kalaram Temple Entry Satyagraha Committee in 1931 and he accepted the offer. His Karam Bhumi was Ahmadanagar area and served as Superintendent Shri Shahu Chhatrapati Boarding, Nasik from 1932 to 1935, a nominated member of the Sangamner Municipality from 1934 to 1936 and member of the District Local Board, Ahmednagar since 1935. He also seved as  the General Secretary of the  Youth League of Nasik from 1931 to 1934.
         Being a close confidant of Dr B.R. Ambedkar, Shri Roham he was present at Yeola in Nasik when Baba Sahib declared to leave Hinduism on13th October 1935   and got converted to Buddhism along with his leader on14th October 1956 at Nagpur. There after he worked for the spread of Buddhism in districts of Nasik, Ahmednagar and Pune.When Baba Sahib formed the Independent Labour Party (ILP) on 15 August, 1936, Shri Roham joined it and was elected President of The Independent Labor Party (ILP) or Swantra Majdoor Pakasha of Ahmadnagar district unit. He was called to contest on ILP ticket for the Bombay Provincial Legislative Council from Ahmadnagar (South) in 1937 and he got elected. In all fourteen candidates of IPL won for the Mumbai Legislative council election held on 17th February 1937 along with Dr. Ambedkar. He presented the “Family Planning Bill” framed by Baba Sahib in the Assembly on 10th November 1938. He again contested but unsuccessfully the elections in 1946 and in 1952 from Rahurl. When Republican Party of India then under Dada Sahib B.K Giakward launched a Satyagraha in 1964 Roham took very active part in organizing it. At an age of 83 years this loyal son of Indian Dalit movement left his mortal body frame on 21st February, 1990.
                                  Morter Luther King a great Liberator of Black was born.
                                   In the eleven-year period between 1957 and 1968, King travelled over six million miles and spoke over twenty-five hundred times, appearing wherever there was injustice, protest, and action; and meanwhile he wrote five books as well as numerous articles. In these years, he led a massive protest in Birmingham, Alabama, that caught the attention of the entire world, providing what he called a coalition of conscience. and inspiring his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail", a manifesto of the Negro revolution; he planned the drives in Alabama for the registration of Negroes as voters; he directed the peaceful march on Washington, D.C., of 250,000 people to whom he delivered his address, "l Have a Dream", he conferred with President John F. Kennedy and campaigned for President Lyndon B. Johnson; he was arrested upwards of twenty times and assaulted at least four times; he was awarded five honorary degrees; was named Man of the Year by Time magazine in 1963; and became not only the symbolic leader of American blacks but also a world figure.
At the age of thirty-five, Martin Luther King, Jr., was the youngest man to have received the Nobel Peace Prize. When notified of his selection, he announced that he would turn over the prize money of $54,123 to the furtherance of the civil rights movement.

15-01-1956                                 Behan Mayavati was born
              Behan Mayawati, a four-time Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, is chief of Bahujan Samaj Party which is, at present, main opposition party in the Assembly of Uttar Pradesh. She is leading BSP in the UP  Vidhan Sabha elections scheduled to be held in Febuary-March in 2017.                                    
      Dr. Ambedkar delivered speech in Gokhale Institute Pune which was later published  in a book form     titled  Ranade, Gandhi, Jinah.
         Constitution of Free India came into force, granting  equality before Law to all its citizens irrespective of the             caste, creed, sex or place of birth
29-01-, 1904   
       Shri J.N.Mandal(1904-1968) was born He was First Law and Labour  Minister of Pakistan.He presided briefly the constitution Drafting Committee of Pakistan. He single handily  got  Elected Dr. Ambedkar  from Bengal with the support of Scheduled Caste and Muslim members. There after  Dr. Ambedkar became a member of Constituent Assembly of India. Subsequently Dr. Ambedkar was selected as the chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, thanks to the vision of Shri Joginder Nath Mandal was a trusted lieutenant of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and became the first Law Minister of Pakistan and also the Chairman of Constitution Drafting committee of Pakistan after the partition of India. Prior to the partition of India Shri Joginder Nath Mandal gained national prominence for winning the election in 1946 on SCF ticket and for being included in the interim Ministry of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru with Law Portfolio. Then Babu Jagjivan Ram was another prominent Dalit leader of Congress party and a minister in the Interim Ministry. In free India Babu Jagjivan Ram served in different capacities including Deputy Prime Minister .
Shri Joginder Nath Mandal was also fondly called Mahapran. Shri J.N. Mandal was born in Namashudra caste of Scheduled Castes on January 29th, 1904. He was born to a farmer Shri Ramdayal Mandal and Shrimati Sandhaya Devi of village Maister Kandi in Barisal district of undivided Bengal. He was admitted to a school when he was eight years old. He was meritorious and passed his Matriculation examination securing First Division in 1924. After passing his B.A. from B.M. College at Barisal in 1929 he secured admission for M.A. in Dacca University. Due to his weak financial position, he discontinued studies at Dacca University. However later he passed Law Degree in 1934. He was aware of the suppression of the Scheduled Castes by the upper Caste Hindus, who were denying them their due share in political, educational, social, religious and economical fields. He thought that only political power can mitigate the Shudras from their man made miseries. So he entered politics and contested his maiden election as independent candidate for the Bengal Legislative Assembly in 1937. He defeated congress candidate, a very powerful and rich landlord. Therefore he became the member of the Legislative assembly when he was only 33 years old. There were 20 other Independent Scheduled Caste party leaders. Shri J.N. Mandal was elected as secretary with Shri Hem Chander Naskar as President of the Independent Scheduled Caste Party. The joint effort of the M.L.As succeeded in securing 15% reservation in services for Scheduled Caste candidates in Bengal. Observing sincerity, intelligence and organizational qualities of J.N. Mandal, Jenab Khawaja Nizamudeen, the Chief Minister of Bengal, inducted him as a minister in his cabinet along with two others from Scheduled Castes. So Shri J.N. Mandal became undisputed political leader of Scheduled Castes in Bengal.
The Independent Labour Party (IPL) formed by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar on15th August 1936 had got itself engaged in the welfare and the struggle to secure political power for Scheduled Castes. When in 1942 Dr. Ambedkar tried to broaden IPL’s base so changed its name to The Scheduled Castes Federation (SCF). Units of SCF were established in several states including Bengal. The unit in Bengal was given the name of Bengal Provincial Scheduled Caste Federation. Meanwhile Shri J.N. Mandal started a weekly paper called “Jagran” through which he continued the crusade to enlighten the Dalits about their just rights. This paper could not last long. He also started another weekly paper “The People’s Herald” in 1943 and in its inaugural function Dr. Ambedkar was present to bless the project.On defeat of the ministry in 1935, fresh elections were ordered in 1946. Shri J.N. Mandal contested as a SCF party candidate from a general seat and won. After the elections, a new ministry under Jenab H.S. Surahawardy of Muslim League was formed. Shri J.N. Mandal was again included in the Ministry. Under Cabinet Plan in 1946, the Muslim League also joined the interim ministry formed by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and Shri J.N. Mandal was included from Muslim League quota and allotted Law portfolio . The SCF in its convention held at Agra passed a congratulatory message to congratulate Shri Mandal on his selection to the interim ministry. The Provincial assemblies had the right to choose their representatives to form Constituent Assembly. Since Dr. B. R. Ambedkar had failed to win a seat from Bombay on SCF ticket, the prospects of his election to the Constituent Assembly were blocked. Sardar Patel said that all doors and windows of the Constituent Assembly were closed to Dr. Ambedkar and now he cannot enter it. Here stepped in Shri J.N. Mandal to suggest that Dr. Ambedkar should contest for Legislative Assembly from Bengal. Dr. Ambedkar agreed and so with the support of Scheduled Caste and Muslim members, he was elected from Bengal Legislature to be a member of Constituent Assembly of India. Subsequently Dr. Ambedkar was selected as the chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee, thanks to the vision of Shri J.N. Mandal.
Shri J.N. Mandal had clear vision of the rights of the Scheduled Castes, but declared that congress leaders were adamant not to give any such rights to the Scheduled Castes in free India, so the rights will have to be secured by dint of their unity. He was a strong supporter of united Bengal. He pleaded that political turmoil of partition was temporary and shall pass off soon.
Things changed with the formation of the new country Pakistan on 14th August1947. Every individual was given the right to choose the country of his or her choice to live in. Shri Mandal opted to be a citizen of Pakistan to oversee the interests of the Scheduled Caste people left over there. Jenab Liaquat Ali Khan became first Premier of Pakistan. Sh. J.N Mandal was included in the first Pakistan government as the Law ,Justice and Labour Minister. He was also the second minister of commonwealth and Kashmir affairs. So in the divided India both countries had the first law Ministers from among the Scheduled Castes. Shri J.N. Mandal as Law Minister had the honour to preside over the first meeting of the Pakistan Constituent Assembly. Since Pakistan Government was not prepared to grant constitutional rights to scheduled casted in Pakistan, so Shri J.N. Mandal decided to come back to India. He resigned on October 8, 1950 as Law Minister and as President of Pakistan's Constitution Drafting Committee. He came back to India in 1950 to continue his struggle for the rights of Dalits.
After returning back to India he continued his work for the up liftment of Dalits. He played an important role in Dr. Ambedkar’s dream project of establishing the Republican Party of India (RPI). Shri J.N. Mandal contested for Lok Saba as an RPI Candidate from a general constituency in West Bengal in 1967 but lost.
This son of the soil, one of the important and brave soldiers of Dalit cause passed away in Calcutta (now Kolkata) on 5thOctober, 1968. He shall be long remembered for his life long fight for the Dalit cause
30—01--1944:      All India Scheduled Castes Federation Conference was held at Kanpur under the chairperson-ship  of     N Shivraj. This was the second such conference of the federation and it went on till the next day i.e. 31 January 1944.
30 January 2000: Press release by Manyawar Kanshi Ram on the review of constitution.
    The press release was on the backdrop of the Warning given by the President of India (K R Narayananan) to the Nation and Government while speaking in the Central Hall of Parliament on 27 January 2000, the 50 year of framing of Indian Constitution. He had advised the Government of India not to go in for a review of the Constitution, but to study and analyse the way the successive Governments were working to implement the Constitution and various provisions there in. The Government of India was headed by A B Vajpayee (Bhartiya Janta Party). The press release by Manyawar Kanshi Ram (Bahujan Samaj Party) is as follows:“I welcome the warning sounded by the President about the Government’s move to Review the Constitution.  It is strange that instead of clearly identifying the areas where Review or Amendment is needed, the Government is keeping everything under the cloak of secrecy, by proposing a Review of the whole Constitution.
    The Constitution of India as drafted by Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar, although not fully accepted still, reflected the aspirations and hopes of the vast millions, who were made to live degraded sub human lives for centuries.  As a result of the change in the Political and Social Scenario brought by the Constitution, the shackles of the old social system have weakened, and now there is tremendous awareness and awakening in the Bahujan Samaj.  In fact, the political instability which has been witnessed in the last few years is the result of social mobility and dynamism of the Weaker Sections which has been generated by the constitutional framework.  The political stability of yester years, was the result of not strong popular base of the political parties, but the strict political control exercised by the socially dominant groups over the Bahujan Samaj.
31 -01-,1920           Mooknayak Fortnight news paper launched by Baba Sahib. For this paper 
                                Shatarpati  Sahu J Maharaj donated   Rs 2500/-
January  1909                      Choudhary Sadhu Ram was born
        Sadhu Ram later known as  Choudhary Sadhu Ram Mastere, a Punjabi Dalit leader was born to a well known (Chamar) Shri Jawahar Mal of Village Domeli in Kapurthala in January 1909.  As a child Sadhu Ram was admitted in the Khalasa High School Domeli. On achieving adulthood Shri Sadhu Ram established his good business. From the very childhood Sadhu Ram decided to work for the welfare of his community. The condition of the Dalits in those days was no good and majority of them worked as farm labour for Land holders at minimum wages. These poor Dalits were under age-old debt of the local Banias (Business men and money lenders). Poverty, illiteracy and hate were forced upon them by manmade religious norms. So Sadhu Ram decided to dedicate his life to remove these manmade miseries and free his brethren from the centuries old slur. Later he prefixed his surname as “Choudhary” meaning village headman, landlord, Local leader, Chieftain or foreman. He worked with Mangoram Magowalia for establishment of Ad-Dharam in 1926. To put this movement on the firm footing its aims and objectives were to establish a separate religious identity for untouchables other than Hindus on the Philosophy of Dalit Saints particularly Guru Ravidas. Discrimination on account of castes was discarded saying it was manmade as God created every one equal. Sikh way of worship was adopted declaring following of the Hindu religious books likes Shastri, Spiritless, Prams and Vedas as sin.  Jai Guru Dev was adopted as a wish for greeting. Later he broke away from Ad Dharma and joined Dr.Ambedkar’s movement SCF. Again Master Sadhu Ram broke away from SCF and joined Indian National Congress in 1946. He met Babu Jagjivan Ram, who was a prominent Congress leader with nearness to Mahatma Gandhi. Babu Jagjivan Ram and other Dalit leaders had established in 1935, a pro-Congress Dalit organization named “All India Depressed Classes League”. Master Sadhu Ram joined this organization and was made convener of PEPSU State in 1954. Master Sadhu Ram was nominated by Congress Party in 1952 for General Election to contest his first election from Phagwara (G and SC) constituency for the PEPSU Legislative Assembly and got elected. He was made Deputy Home Minister for PEPSU. This opened the destiny doors for Master Sadhu Ram. In the second general elections held in 1957 he got elected in Lok Sabha from Jallandhar (G and SC) constituency. He got elected in 1962, 1967 and1971 for the Lok Sabha from Phillaur (R) constituency. Master Sadhu Ram continued serving in different capacities till he expired on 1st August, 1975. He shall be long remembered for his good work for the welfare of his people. Although he broke away from Dr. Ambedkar politically, but he continued to keep his ideals as his guide.
17 January 2016   Rohith Chakravarti Vemula suicide
          Rohith Chakravarti Vemula was an Indian PhD student at the University of Hyderabad and author of the book Caste is Not a Rumour. An activist with the Ambedkar Students' Association (ASA), he committed suicide on 17 January 2016 following a controversy that had begun in July 2015 when the university reportedly stopped paying him a fellowship of Rs25,000 per month because an enquiry found he had been "Raising issues under the banner of Ambedkar Students Association". Rohith Vemula killed himself after being expelled from the university following a complaint made by one of the leaders of India’s ruling Bharatiya Jananta Party (BJP). Along with four other Dalit students, Vemula was protesting against the capital sentence given to a suspected terrorist, which angered the BJP. Vemula and the other four students were suspended by university authorities in August 2015. The galvanising force has been a statement in Vemula’s suicide note – “My birth is my fatal accident” – drawing attention to the status of many other rural Dalit students.  His death sparked protests and outrage across India and gained widespread media attention as an alleged case of discrimination against Dalits. Vemula’s death and has admitted the four other students back into the university. After Vemula’s death the university has admitted the four other students back into the university.  As per one report Vemula’s death has once again exposed the deep-seated caste discrimination in higher education institutions – both among students and teachers. In similar higher education institutions in India, there have been 23 deaths of students from Dalit backgrounds. Educational institutions that are supposed to be centres of excellence and social transformation instead perpetuate social segregation and caste-based discrimination. Elite educational institutions have been purportedly seen as hotbeds of caste-based discrimination against students belonging to lower castes.  A quote from Chennai  based Writer Meena Kandasamy ‘s note in  the conversation  web site:
  “Education has now become a disciplining enterprise working against Dalit students: they are constantly under threat of rustication, expulsion, defamation, discontinuation. In a society where students have waged massive struggles to ensure their right to access higher educational institutions through the protective, enabling concept of the reservation policy, no one has dared to shed light on how many of these students are allowed to leave these institutions with degrees, how many become dropouts, become permanent victims of depression, how many end up dead”.
      Words 8178                 Compiled  By:- Er.H. R. Phonsa Jammu
                                             The writer can be contacted on hrphonsa @ 
gmail.com or zenithrs@yahoo.com M-09419134060
     [1] Bhakta Das, A Glimpse of Scheduled Castes in Assam, book p 26. 1986
     [2] Kshirsagar R K, Dalit Movement in India and Its Leaders, 1857-1956, book page 384-385. 1994
     [3] Dhananjay Keer, Dr. Ambedkar: Life and Mission book, Pg 318
        [4] K V Ramakrishna Rao, The Historic Meeting of Ambedkar, Jinnah and Periyar, A paper presented during the 21st session of South Indian History Congress held at Madurai Kamaraj University from 18 to 20 January 2001 and published in the proceedings, pp.128-136
    [5] Nitin Brahme, Pune Mirror, Newspaper dated 4 August 2011
       [6] The Hindu, Newspaper
     7)  The Pune Mirror newspaper dated 4 August 2011     
     8) Dr.Ambedkar and His Associates  by  Er.H.R.Phonsa  Jammu
     9) Chamarjati Ka Goravshali Etihas by Satnam Singh
    10) Bharat Main Dalit Jagaran aur Uskey Agardoot   By  Mata Prashad( Former Governor Arnuchal Pradesh)
     11) the conversation  web site
     12) Dr Ambrdkar and His Associates by “ Er.H.R.Phonsa”.Jammu


  1. StamiMax From exercising to testing out Natural Testosterone Booster possibilities different techniques to be a fit anyone. Prevent by using the machines and stick to your fundamentals from your muscle building work outs. http://jackedmuscleextremeadvice.com/stamimax/