Dr .Ambedkar was the first in his community to pass Matriculation Examination in 1907 .He was first Dalit to get education in foreign lands in one of most prestigious world Universities like Columbia University USA, Londom School Of Economics U.K, Bonn University in Germany, Bar at the Gray’s Inn. He was rare of rarest Indian who obtained M.A; PhD ; DSc.; Barrister –at- Law; LL.D; D.Litt and many more Honorary Degrees from many Universities. It is also a hard fact that despite being a world class supper human, he was not given any befitting honour by his Alma Mater the University Of Bombay. He was a reputed scholar in Economics, Political Sciences, Law, Constitutional Law, Anthropology, and Religion Philosophy. He was a great teacher also, backed by his deep studies of the subjects he taught. Perhaps he was first among Dalits to be appointed professor ( June 1928 to March 1929) and to occupy the chair of the Principal of the Government Law College Bombay( Now Mumbai) June 1,1935 to May 1938.
Dr. Ambedkar observed that the journalism which was a earlier a profession had turned into a business exploitation in the hands of capitalists. Dr Ambedkar sensed the need of a news paper of his own and said a leader without a news paper was like a bird without wings. He was perhaps the first Dalit to enter the world of journalism when launched on the Mook Nayak ( Leader of dumb) on January 31st,1920 ,on 3rd April,1927 the Bahiskrit Bharat( Excluded India), the Samta
( Equality) the Janta ( People) on 24th November,1930,The Prubh Bharat( Awakened Bharat ). His writings in these news papers spread his message very quickly among the Depressed masses. He stated his news papers much earlier than Mahatama Ganfdhi’s the Harijan, started in Feburary 1933.
Baba Sahib Dr. Ambedkar was first Dalit to be awarded Bharat Ratana in 1990 posthumously after a lapse of 34 years after his death. This shows apathy of the ruling parties towards their National celebrities.
Hardly anybody could imagine that a Mahar Subedar Major’s 14th child Bhiva ( Bhimrao’s first name) could one day divert the world attention towards the deplorable condition of Indian Untouchable millions, seeking constitutional rights for them in Round Table conferences called by the mighty British Crown’s Government in their heartland . Dr. Ambedkar was one of the two Untouchables who were first to be nominated to represent the slaves to the British Indian Slaves. Dr. Ambedkar’s courage , convections backed by world’s highest degrees forced the British Crown’s Government along with Indian monarchs, politicians to listen the woes of half feed, half naked, illiterates socially lowest of the low through their own representative who had studied world history in foreign lands. He also warned the British to leave India soon as they have failed to make any improvement in the, social, religious, political, political, educations and economic conditions of poor particularly untouchable millions during their rule. In the three Round Table conference in London Dr. Ambedkar’s narrations were so logical and force full that all eye brows were raised to listen the plight of those who had never been represented before, in history in any such official forum. About his narrations news items were carried by news papers world over with editorials written in praise of the new found leaders of Indian untouchables. Not only Dr. Ambedkar’s views were highly acclaimed in all world spheres but they brought dividends for Untouchable in the future governments Of India. The problems of untouchable were brought on world forum for finding their solutions speedily. This way the British were made to realise their folly.
The British were made to find space for Indian untouchable in the future government. To give political representation to untouchables Simon Commission was established. Dr. Ambedkar’s plea before Simon Commission with other organisations and leaders of Depressed classes was so forceful that the British India government announced Communal Award outlining the method of reserving seats in representative bodies with a right of duel votes to untouchables to use in the future election. This established the existence of untouchables as a definite and separate identity and equal stake holders in the future constitution.
On this Mahatama Gandhi backed by Hindu reactionary forces under took fast unto death in Yarwada Jail Poona ( Now Pune). Mahatama Gandhi was against granting any political rights to untouchables,saying theirs was a social problems to be solved with the frame work of Hindu Verna system. The Poona pact was signed by Dr. Ambedkar under duress to save Gandhi’s life but standing on equal pedestal with those who had denied evening touch shadow of untouchable but to talk of human rights to them for centuries. Reservation in the provincial and central legislatures, appointments in public services and local bodies with removal of disabilities of the depressed classes were the direct result of the Poona Pact. Denial of double election and duel voting as per Communal Award or separate electorates, gave a chance to upper caste political body heads to select dummy candidates from scheduled castes and scheduled Tribes to contest the reserved seats and be a party to denial of Constitutional Rights to the Dalit communities.
Dr. Ambedkar himself a great lover of books and himself a writer with millions of readership was the first to burn the Hindu Code book “ Manusmiriti” as Manu, its writer claimed it contain laws with Divine sanction. To Dr. Ambedkar it was devised to give sanctions of inhuman suppression of untouchables and women. He was also first in the history of caste struggle to sip water of Choudar Tank ( Water Tank) by organising Satyagraha. Taking water from Choudar Tank was banned from centuries for the untouchable Hindus. He was hurt gravely in the melee but did not lose heart to fight law suit instituted against him and his followers. It took ten years to win the law suit. To register untouchable’s just right to worship in Hindu temples, he organised on 2nd March,1930 with his follow men and women Kalaram Temple entry struggle, and carried it for five long years. But still superstitious Hindus did not allow the Untouchable to enter their temples. Even now in free India, in many temples entry for Untouchables is banned.
Dr. Ambedkar claimed Mahatama jyotirao Phule as his political guru. When Phule was convinced that illiteracy was main reason of untouchable slavery he opened 18 schools in and around 1848 some excursively for girl students. Dr. Ambedkar followed suit and founded People’s Education Society on 8th July, 1945 based on five principles namely the ideal of knowledge, the ideals of compassion, the ideal of democracy, the ideal of equality and the ideal of justice. The primary aim of this society is to promote higher education among the poorer people in general and Buddhists Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and other backward Classes in particular. The Peoples Education Society founded “The Milind College, Aurangabad Maharashtra” a most backward area of Maharashtra state. Its foundation was laid by Dr. Ambedkar on 9th July,1953. The People’s Education Society is now manning a large chain of quality educational Institutions giving employment to thousands of youth.
Dr Ambedkar was also first to challenge discriminatory rules and systems like a Khoti System, Mahar Vatan, bonded labour, unequal wages to women workers, long hours of labour in factories or houses on nominal wages, non existence of maternity leave for women workers, non entry of depressed classes students into government funded education institutions, non employment of depressed class persons in higher posts in government services, non payment for over time in factories. Dr. Ambedkar was a strong advocate of nationalisation of agriculture, land to be vested in government, paid maternity leave, political rights to depressed classes people, paid over time in offices and factories at the double rate of normal wages, no religious interference in government affairs and such other government progressive measures.
Thinkins importance of a political party of Dalits, Dr. Ambedkar was first to launch a political party ( I L P ) on 15th August 1936,to protect political rights of Depressed classes. ILP won 11 seats in Bombay Presidency elections held on 17th February 1937.
Dr. Ambedkar’s high qualifications and mass support earned him the ever prestigious position of Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee to draft Constitution for free India. Besides being First Law Minister Of free India. The doctor who burnt the Hindu Law Book Manusmiriti in 1927 was called upon to draft new rules for the future Indian generations, based upon the principal of equality before law, adult franchise with special protections for weak and under privileged in free India’s constitution. The constitution he gave is based on the cannons of equality to all, liberty, democracy, secular socialism and fraternity. The Fundamental Principles, the Directive Principles or other unique features of Dr. Ambedkar written Constitution. Discrimination on the basis of caste, colour, creed, place of birth, sex were uprooted by the free Indian Constitution. Untouchbility which had clung to the Hindus and divided them in to over 6743 caste segments and it observance in any form was abolished and made punishable offence under Art 17.
Dr. Ambedkar drafted the Hindu Code Bill on the instance and a solemn promise of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Lal Nehru that the Bill shall be passed in the parliament else he shall resign with his cabinet. The Bill was to give needed rights to women. But when fundamentalists in and outside the Parliament opposed it the Prime Minister back tracked and decided to withdraw the Bill. On this Dr. Ambedkar resigned in project from the post of Law Minister Of India. This was perhaps first in the world history that a country’s Law Minister resigned for the rights of women. The Bill was passed in piece meals and granted present day rights to women.
Dr. Ambedkar’s sad demise in his sleep at his residence in New Delhi on 6th December,1956 witnesses largest funeral procession in the Bombay( Mumbai ) history making enen a record hard to be broken even in future.
It was rare historical occasion when over five lacs embraced Buddhism in one go.
Baba Sahib Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Ambedkar was a rare jewel and earned uncountable first in his life and after. Many surveys have been carried world over after Baba Sahib’s death which selected him as first among many world personalities.
In Dr.Ambedkar “ A great man is different from an eminent one in that he is ready to be the servant of the society”.