Bharat Ratana Baba Saheb Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar was born on 14 th April 1891 at Mhow to revered Subedar Major Ramji Sakhpal & Mata Bhimabai of Mahar Community. Mata Bhimabai died when Bhim was only six years old , so he was brought up in the care of married sisters & his father’s sister Mirabai . It is said that Mahars were the rulers of Marashtra ( Mahar + Rashtra ) but because of Hindu agony & caste based values, they were reduced to the level of Untouchables,Sudras, Ati sudra, whose only shadow was considered enough to pollute an upper caste Hindu. Ambedkar worked over 18 hours a day. Bhimrao was married to Ramabai at the tender age of 17 years when his wife was only of 9 years. Mata Ramabai stood like a rock by her Saheb in the later life till her death on
May 27, 1935. Some incidents left life long impressions on Bhim & became turning points of his later life. He sacrificed his life comforts for the just cause of his suffering brethren.
While Bhim was in primary school his father remarried which was disliked by him, so he decided to go to
(Now Mumbai) to get employed in some factory. For arranging money for traveling he decided to steal money from the purse of his aunt Mirabai with whom he used to sleep on floor at night. Bhim spent four sleepless night to steal the purse and when he succeeded in his efforts, he found only half an Anna (Rs 0.03), with which he could not go to Bombay . This gave him the first jolt of his life and in sight of what poverty was, so he decided to leave truant habits & concentrate on his studies to pass his examination as early as possible to become independent of his father & step mother. He felt the stigma of Untouchability in his childhood. He along with his elder brother Balram and little nephew were going from Satara to Goregaon to meet his father, who worked at Goregoan as cashier. They got down at Padali railway station, but their father had not reached to receive them. So with the assistance of the station master, a caste Hindu, the children boarded a bullock cart to go to Goregoan . Only after going a few yards, the god fearing caste Hindu cart man came to know the well dressed children were untouchables, so he threw them down on the road saying they had polluted his cart & animals. As the night was falling, so the children begged to the cart man to help them. The cart man agreed on the terms that he will take double the fare and one of them shall drive the cart and he shall walk on foot behind the cart. On the way no body offered them a drop of water. Few days after this Bhim was mad with thrust and started drinking water at a public water place. On seeing this caste Hindus bates him black and blue. One day a barber turned Bhim out of his shop and refused to cut his hair, as by doing so his razor shall get polluted and no caste Hindu shall come to his shop. However this barber gladly performed buffalo- shaving with his razor. These insulting and rude behaviors cast an impression on young Bhim that he belonged to a caste which had no respect with the caste Hindus. He decided to oppose it with all his might in his later life & he fulfilled this promise by leaving the Hindu religion. But still another instance reinforced his will to work for his downtrodden brethren to get them equal rights in political, constitutional, Religious, educational& economical fields. Bombay
After obtaining world’s highest Academic Degreed of M.A. PhD D.sc., Bar at Law he joined service as Military Secretary to the Maharaja of
. On reaching Baroda he was not accorded any reception befitting his official position. He and his elder brother, who had accompanied him, were not given any accommodation by any hotel. They took shelter in a Parsee inn, but his luggage was thrown out only after a few days , abusing him as arrant knave and despicable untouchable . But he got spine shivering experience when poor illiterate but high Caste peons thought it polluting and sinful to hand over files and official papers to Doctor Ambedkar. They threw from a distance files and papers at him table. They rolled the mates when the Military Secretary, an untouchable got up to go out. Drinking water was not made available to him and he had to go to public library for taking water and spending his spare time. His note to the Maharaja was sent to the Diwan, who shrew his inability to help Ambedkar. He was hungry the sky was his roof & ground his floor. He decided to return to Baroda only after two months from mid September to mid November 1917. Subsequently Dr, Ambedkar resigned from the job and dedicated his whole life for the service of millions of oppressed peoples, who were denied all means of decent livelihood by their own religious rules books. Bombay
Due to handwork of duo father& son, Bhimrao earned world’s Highest academic Degrees
of D.sc ( London ); PhD & LL.D (Columbia ); M.A ; D. Lit ( Osmania ) Bar –at- Law (London ) .etc
Dr Ambedkar knew seven languages. Dr Ambedkar also served on highly prestigious positions as Labour member of Viceroy’s Executive Council (1942-46 ) ; First Law Minister Of Independent India & earned the distinction of serving as Chairman Of the Constitution Drafting Committee to draft Constitution for free India & is so called “ father Of Indian constitution.” Some called him Mother of Indian Constitution as well. He proved an emancipator for Dalits, a torch bearer for the liberation of slaves’ world over & soft & kind for his peoples, but an insurmountable rock for his opponents. He contributed for the freedom of
India, but more for the Dalits, who were slaves to the slaves of British India. He was highly praised by those who understood his odious cause for the liberation of his Dalit community persons, but also abused as traitor by those who never appreciated his mission of life & wanted to maintain status-quo in social, political, economic & religious spheres even after independence. Many peoples from different shades of life have expressed their views on the working, personality, handwork, knowledge, experience, contributions, commitment to his mission of Dr Ambedkar to eulogized Doctor’s services to different fields. Dr. Ambedkar passed away in his sleep at 26 Alipore roads on 6th of December 1956 and was cremated at Dadar Hindu Crematorium Bombay). Over five lac devotees witnessed the last rites and over one lac embraced Buddhism. The pyre was lit by his only son Yashwantrao Ambedkar at . New Delhi
One of the major contributions of Dr. Ambedkar was to give fight to change the age old system of the Hindus to deny major chunk of their co- followers called the untouchables or Dalits, the right to have better prospects in the education social, economical, religious & political fields. By dint of his hard labour Dr. Ambedkar proved that given proper helping circumstances any body can excel in all fields including education irrespective of one’s caste, creed, religion, faith, sex or place of birth.. It was the partial treatment in the Hindu society which resulted in giving poverty to the Dalits and administrative rod to the Upper Castes. SO all human right to Dalits as to have equal opportunities for education, religion, economical & social status in the society were denied . He advised the society to encourage girl education & family planning to boost all out progress of the society. He introduced in the Parliament on 5th February 1951 The Hindu Code bill, which was opposed by many including the Hindu Mahasabha & other orthodox Hindus As Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee Dr, Ambedkar granted equal fundamental rights, including equal wages for equal work, equality before Law to all citizen irrespective of caste, creed, race, sex, religion or place of birth. His single handed efforts routed out by law the stigma of untouchability in the Hindu religion, although it is yet clinging the orthodox Hindus in a big way even after five decades of enactment of Law to ban it in all its forms.. He brought back Buddha to
when he embraced Buddhism on 14 th October 1956 along with over three lacs of men & women. Dr. Ambedkar lived for 22 days after conversion to Buddhism and during this small period over Five Lacs Dalits got converted to their original faith. Dr Ambedkar while being Messiah to Dalits was also an Indian to the core. India
Keeping in view Dr. Ambedkar,s services for the betterment of his country& his peoples. His services have been praised world over.
R. A. Seligman, Dr. Ambedkar‘s teacher while commenting on the thesis “Evolution of Provincial Finances in British India,” which earned PhD to Ambedkar remarked “Nowhere to my knowledge, has such a detailed study of the underlying principles been made.”
His Highness, Chhaterpati Sahuji Maharaj of Kohlapur State, Remarked, while addressing the conference of untouchables, Presided over by Dr, Ambedkar on 21 st March, 1920 “you have found your savior in Ambedkar. I am confident he will break your sickles. Not only that, a time will come when, so whispers my conscience, Ambedkar will shine as a front rank leader of all
fame & appeal,” India
His highness Gakward, the Maharaja of Bikaner ;-Who scholarshiped Ambedkar’s education in USA ) after listening Dr. Ambedkar’s speech in Ist Round Table Conference said to his queen “Their efforts & money they had spent on the speaker of the day ( Ambedkar ) were all realized. It was an achievement, a glorious success The Maharaja was full of admiration, satisfaction and high appreciations with tears of joy in his eyes for Dr. Ambedkar.The Maharaja hosted a special dinner to Honour Dr Ambedkar.
Mahatama Gandhi in a speech (Out side II R Table Conference) said “I have the highest regards for Dr. Ambedkar. He has every right to be bitter. That he does not break our heads is an act of self- restraint on his part. He is today so much saturated with suspicion that he can not see anything else. He sees in every Hindu a determined opponent of the Untouchables and it is quite natural. The same thing happened to my in my early days in
...” South Africa
Shri T.T. Krishanamachari, a colleague of his in the Drafting Committee, while commenting on work of the Chairman, said “The House is perhaps aware that of the seven members nominated by you, one had reigned from the House and was never replaced One had died & wasn’t replaced. One was away in
& his place was not filled up, and another person was engaged in state affairs, & there was a void to that extent. One or two people were far away from America and perhaps reasons of health did not permit them to attend. So it happened ultimately that the burden of drafting this Constitution fell upon Dr. Ambedkar and I have no doubt that we are grateful to him for having achieved this task in a manner which is undoubtedly commendable.” Delhi
Shri K. R. Narayanan former President of India said “Dr. Ambedkar had faith in the Constitution that he helped to fashion for
He visualized democracy as the Golden Means.”
Sri Sharad Pawar Former chief Minister of Maharastra, now Union Minister said” Dr. Ambedkar and Constitution have become synonymous.”
On death of Dr Ambedkar world over rich tributes were paid.
U. Nu. The Primer of Burma said “Dr. Ambedkar was without dispute one of the illustrious figures that played a historic part in the annals of the great country
, at a time when changing trends and Conditions were making significant impression on the life & social structure of the nation. He was one of those who helped accelerated process of the social change in the country, a process in the case of which hundreds of thousands, even millions had been enabled to look forward to a better life and a happier life.” India
Veer Savarkas , a sworn enemy of British said “
has lost in Dr. Ambedkar a true great man.” India
Dr Rajindra Prasad the President of India said “Ambedkar was the Architect of our Constitution and his services in various capacities, particularly for the upliftment of the Depressed Classes, could not be exaggerated.”
C. Rajagopalachari said “- ... -Ambedkar was a thoroughly upright person and a man with keen jurist sense, a proud and irreconcilable heart, a great learning and when approached in the right spirit, a full of friendliness. Such a one has found peace after life’s fit full work.”
Danajay Keer a biographer of Dr. Ambedkar wrote “To visit Dr.Ambedkar, was to visit a speaking museum.”
In the end I may quote from the saying of Baba Saheb Ambedkar’s views on Economic Progress and a word of guidance / warning to his community & countrymen:-
The good things of this earth do not fall from heaven. Every progress has it bill of costs and only those who pay for it will have that progress.